Chapter 9. Cross Linguistic Influence and Learner language

Chapter 9. Cross Linguistic Influence and Learner language PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Preview. The contrastive analysis hypothesis ( CAH)From the CAH to CLI (cross-linguistic influence)Markedness and universal grammarLearner languageError analysisMistakes and errorsErrors in error analysisIdentifying and describing errors. Sources of errors Interlingual transfers Intraling

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Chapter 9. Cross Linguistic Influence and Learner language

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1. Chapter 9. Cross Linguistic Influence and Learner language Chapter 9. (pp. 248-284) Brown, D. H. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching. (5th ed.). White Plains, NY: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Prepared by: John Yang Professor: Dr. Ming-Lung Yang (Roger) Date: Oct 2, 2010

2. Preview The contrastive analysis hypothesis ( CAH) From the CAH to CLI (cross-linguistic influence) Markedness and universal grammar Learner language Error analysis Mistakes and errors Errors in error analysis Identifying and describing errors Sources of errors Interlingual transfers Intralingual transfers Context of learning Stages of learner language development Variation in learner language Fossilization or Stabilization? Form-focused instruction Categories of Error treatment A model for error treatment (in the classroom)

3. The Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis The CAH claimed that the principal barrier to second language acquisition is the interference of L1 system with the L2 system.(????????????????) A scientific- structural analysis will develop a taxonomy of linguistic contrasts between them(??????????) which will enable the linguist to predict the difficulties. For example: Mark Twain”s The Innocents Aboard (p.249 line 21)

4. The Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis “Those elements that are similar to native language will be simple for him and those elements that are different will be difficult” (Robert Lado 1957) (Banathy, Trager, and Waddle, 1966) (p.249 line 34) Clifford Prator (1967) captured the essence of the grammatical hierarchy in six categories of difficulty. (Stockwell, Bowen, and Martin, 1965 called it hierarchy of difficulty)

5. Six categories of hierarchy of difficulty (a native English speaker learning Spanish as L2) Level 0-Transfer??. No difference or contrast is present between the two languages. The learner can simply transfer a sound, structure, or lexical item from the native language to the target language. Level 1 –coalescence ?? two items in the native language become coalesced into essentially one item in the target language. Example: English 3rd p. possessives require gender distinction (his/her) and in Spanish they do not (su) Level 2 Underdifferentiation ???? –an item in the native language is absent in the target language. ?do???,wh?????(whose),?????????? Level 3 Reinterpretation ???? –an item that exists in the native language is given a new shape or distribution. Example: ???????????? (p.250)

6. Cont. Level 4. Overdifferentiation ????–a new item entirely, bearing any similarity to the native language item, must be learned. Example: English speakers must learn the use of determiners in Spanish –man is mortal/El hombre es mortal. Level 5. Split ??–one item in the native language becomes two or more in the target language requiring the learner to make a new distinction. English speakers must learn the distinction between (ser) and (estar)

7. From the CAH to CLI (cross-linguistic influence)

8. The Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis ????????????????????,??,????????,??,???????,????????,??,????????????,????? (Wardhaugh, 1970) –???????????????????????????(the strong version of the CAH ) Wardhaugh ????????????????????????????(the weak version of the CAH)

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