GENERAL CHEMISTRY. Principles and Modern Applications. TENTH EDITION. PETRUCCI HERRING MADURA BISSONNETTE. 2. Atoms and the Atomic Theory. PHILIP DUTTON UNIVERSITY OF WINDSOR DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY AND BIOCHEMISTRY. Atoms and the Atomic Theory.
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Principles and Modern Applications
PETRUCCI HERRING MADURA BISSONNETTE
Atoms and the Atomic Theory
UNIVERSITY OF WINDSOR
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
(a) Before the reaction, the beaker with a silver nitrate solution and a graduated potassium chromate solution are placed on a single pan balance displace the combine mass = 104.5 g
(b) After mixing, a chemical reaction occurs that forms silver chromate (red precipitate) in potassium nitrate solution. The total mass = 104.5 g, remains unchanged.
Mass is conserved during a chemical reaction
Describes the basis of atomic theory with three assumptions
Each element is composed of small particles called atoms. Atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions.
All atoms of a given element are identical but atoms of one element are different from those off all other elements
Compounds are formed when atoms of more than one element combine in simple numerical ratios.
exp: one atom of A to two B (AB2)
Figure 2-3Molecules of CO and CO2
The potassium chromate to give a red solid (silver chromate)Discovery of Electrons
FIGURE 2-6Cathode ray tube
FIGURE 2-7Cathode rays and their properties
Figure 2-8Millikan’s oil-drop experiment
Figure 2-11The scattering of a-particles by metal foil 2-3 The Nuclear Atom
Properties of Protons, manner expected for negatively charged particles (Figure 2-7 (a) and (b)) neutrons and Electrons
Figure 2-13The nuclear atom – illustrated by the helium atom
Symbol of element
A= mass number Z = atomic number
10 protons 10 neutrons and 9 electrons
10 protons 12 neutrons and 8 electrons
8 protons 8 neutrons and 10 electrons
Isotopic manner expected for negatively charged particles (Figure 2-7 (a) and (b)) masses
Figure 2-14A mass spectrometer and a mass spectrum
Atomic Mass of an Element
fractional abundance of isotope 1
atomic mass of isotope 1
fractional abundance of isotope 2
atomic mass of isotope 2
where x1 + x2+ …..+ xn = 1.0
We will discuss these in detail in Chapter 9.
Noble Gases manner expected for negatively charged particles (Figure 2-7 (a) and (b))
Lanthanides and ActinidesThe Periodic table
NA = 6.02214179 x 1023 mol-1