Department of water affairs forestry directorate indigenous forest management
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DEPARTMENT OF WATER AFFAIRS & FORESTRY DIRECTORATE: INDIGENOUS FOREST MANAGEMENT. MEASURES TAKEN TO COMBAT DEGRADATION OF NATURAL FORESTS. DIRECTORATE: INDIGENOUS FOREST MANAGEMENT. Core Functions:

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Department of water affairs forestry directorate indigenous forest management

DEPARTMENT OF WATER AFFAIRS & FORESTRYDIRECTORATE: INDIGENOUS FOREST MANAGEMENT

MEASURES TAKEN TO COMBAT DEGRADATION OF NATURAL FORESTS


Directorate indigenous forest management
DIRECTORATE: INDIGENOUS FOREST MANAGEMENT

Core Functions:

  • Promote greater participation in forestry and the forest products industry by people previously disadvantaged by unfair discrimination.

  • Promote the sustainable use of forests for their multiple use benefits and equitable distribution.

  • Promote community forestry in which the state and communities jointly manage forests.

  • Promote protection of forests.


Extent and distribution
EXTENT AND DISTRIBUTION

  • NFI recently completed

  • Prior to this there was no reliable information due to loss of information during homeland administrations and previous delegations.

  • 530 000 ha – 0.4% of surface area

  • Highly fragmented and widely distributed

  • High levels of bio-diversity

  • Extremely important in rural livelihoods, as evidences by high levels of legal and illegal use


1890s 1940s logging of indigenous forests
1890s - 1940s: Logging of indigenous forests

  • Logging of indigenous forests

  • Loss of rights and access by local communities – strategic resource for State

  • Industrial plantations just beginning


1940s 1970s post war modernisation
1940s - 1970s: Post war modernisation

  • Continuation of logging and intensive development of a yield regulation system & protection emphasis

  • Little to no community involvement, reduced access and forced removals


1970s 1985 conservation and basic needs
1970s - 1985: Conservation and basic needs

  • Greater emphasis on sustainable forest management

  • Early experiments with co-management


1985 present
1985 - Present:

  • Emphasis on economic, environmental and social

    sustainability

  • Principle of co-management and local use rights enshrined in law

  • Re-integration of forests under the NFA and design of appropriate management structures

  • Forests only staffed from 2000 onwards due to restructuring programmes in government and many still not properly staffed

  • Budget still not adequate due to perceived greater social needs


Summary of shifts indigenous state forests

FROM:

Exploitation of indigenous timber subsidised by State

Community loss of access and control

TO:

Sustainable harvesting, systems which are economically viable

Maximising participation of stakeholders in management and benefit sharing

Summary of shifts - Indigenous State Forests



National forests act 1998

National Forests Act, 1998

Section 7: Prohibition on destruction of trees in natural forests


All natural forests, whether on state, private or communal land, are protected from: 1.Any cutting, disturbing, damaging or destruction of any indigenous, living tree2. Removing or receiving any indigenous, living tree from them except through:


1 a licence 2 an exemption under s7
1. A licence land, are protected from: 2.An exemption under s7


Section 8: Power to set aside protected areas land, are protected from: The Minister can:1. Declare a state forest (or part of it)2. Purchase or expropriate land and declare it or3. At the owner’s request or with the owners consent on land outside a state forest, declare it to be a protected area ( forest nature reserve, wilderness area or any other type recognised in international law


Section 12 - 16: Protection of a tree, group of trees, a woodland or species of treesThe following can be declared protected by the MinisterA particular treeA particular group of treesA particular woodlandTrees belonging to a particular species


Section 17: Power to declare controlled forest areas woodland or species of treesThe Minister can declare a controlled forest area if this is urgently needed to prevent deforestation or to rehabilitate an area that has already been deforested


DWAF are currently developing criteria for declaring protected forests as well as a classification system – co-operative governance essential


Participatory forest management
PARTICIPATORY protected forests as well as a classification system – co-operative governance essentialFOREST MANAGEMENT


Indigenous forest management
Indigenous Forest Management protected forests as well as a classification system – co-operative governance essential

  • Participatory Forest Management developed on internationally accepted principles which are enshrined in the National Forests Act,1998 (Act No 84 of 1998).

  • Seeks inter alia to promote greater participation in the forestry and forest products industry by people previously disadvantaged by unfair discrimination.

  • Only moral and practical approach to management of forests that can be sustained in South Africa


Very necessary given the high levels of dependence and association with forests resulting in ecological sustainability being inextricably linked to socio-economic sustainability

Forums established on 80% of forests estates to facilitate participation

Management plans in place which take direct stakeholders needs into consideration

Extensive funding secured and more available for such initiatives – again requires co-operative governance

Some projects to promote greater participation and benefit in forests in place and intensive investigation underway for larger scale initiatives


Examples
EXAMPLES association with forests resulting in ecological sustainability being inextricably linked to socio-economic sustainability

  • Dukuduku

  • Ngome

  • Umzimkhulu


Sokhulu – Mthunzini association with forests resulting in ecological sustainability being inextricably linked to socio-economic sustainability

Plant nurseries

Ntsikeni


Types of degradation
TYPES OF DEGRADATION association with forests resulting in ecological sustainability being inextricably linked to socio-economic sustainability

  • Medicinal plant trade

  • Conversion for agriculture and settlement

  • Roads

  • Illegal harvesting of timber for furniture manufacturing

  • Unsustainable hunting, firewood gathering and building material harvesting


Measures taken by Regions to combat illegal harvesting: association with forests resulting in ecological sustainability being inextricably linked to socio-economic sustainability Eastern Cape:1. PFM forums established in all Forest estates (except Zingcuka, Fractal Forest Africa busy)2. Alleviation of poverty & dependence on forest resources:> Bee-keeping identified in Isidenge> 8 projects identified in PSJ (bee, wood, etc)3.Relocation of Mpantu in PSJthrough co-operation with local structures (municipality)4. Illegal roads by local authorities


4. Daily Forest Guard patrols in forest estates association with forests resulting in ecological sustainability being inextricably linked to socio-economic sustainability 5. Coastal patrols by DWAF, DEAT, provincial agencies, SANDF, SAPS, Land Affairs & others.


Kwazulu-Natal: association with forests resulting in ecological sustainability being inextricably linked to socio-economic sustainability 1. PFM forums2. Forest guards daily patrols3. Licensing of bark harvesting in Umzimkhulu. (SS devising a monitoring and yeild regulations system) Value addition.4. Relocation of illegal occupants in Dukuduku 5. Sokhulu-Mthunzini forest conversion to sugarcane (Proposal for devolution to RBM)


Limpopo: association with forests resulting in ecological sustainability being inextricably linked to socio-economic sustainability 1. Community nurseries for medicinal plants at A. T. Mentz and Maheng villages (alleviation of pressure on forests).2. Educational forest tours3. PFM forums


Southern Cape: association with forests resulting in ecological sustainability being inextricably linked to socio-economic sustainability 1. PFM forums (Diepwalle, Farleigh & Tsitsikamma)2. Measures to alleviate pressure on forest resources:> Controlled harvesting and propagation of medicinal plants e.g. Rooi wortel3. Forest guard patrols4. Co-operation with local authorities:> DWAF trained as Peace Officers, can issue fines, authorised by magistrates.


Mpumalanga: association with forests resulting in ecological sustainability being inextricably linked to socio-economic sustainability 1. Most state land is grassland2. Illegal harvesting (firewood) at Mariepskop, the only indigenous state forest:> awareness raising done> Co-operation of indunas and chiefs achieved> PFM forums established3. Forest guard patrol


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