The Bracero Program
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Bracero card issued to Jesús Campoya in 1951 in El Paso, Texas. PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The Bracero Program

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Bracero card issued to Jesús Campoya in 1951 in El Paso, Texas.

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Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

The Bracero Program

The term bracero (from the Spanish brazo, which translates as "arm") applies to the temporary agricultural and railroad workers brought into the United States as an emergency measure to meet the labor shortage of World War II. The Bracero Program, also referred to as the Mexican Farm Labor Supply Program and the Mexican Labor Agreement, was sanctioned by Congress through Public Law 45 of 1943.

Bracero card issued to Jesús Campoya in 1951 in El Paso, Texas.


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

Operation Wetback

In 1949 the Border Patrol seized nearly 280,000 illegal immigrants. By 1953, the numbers had grown to more than 865,000, and the U.S. government felt pressured to do something about the onslaught of immigration. What resulted was Operation Wetback, devised in 1954 under the supervision of new commissioner of the Immigration and Nationalization Service, Gen. Joseph Swing.

Swing oversaw the Border patrol, and organized state and local officials along with the police. The object of his intense border enforcement were "illegal aliens," but common practice of Operation Wetback focused on Mexicans in general. The police swarmed through Mexican American barrios throughout the southeastern states. Some Mexicans, fearful of the potential violence of this militarization, fled back south across the border. In 1954, the agents discovered over 1 million illegal immigrants.

In some cases, illegal immigrants were deported along with their American-born children, who were by law U.S. citizens. The agents used a wide brush in their criteria for interrogating potential aliens. They adopted the practice of stopping "Mexican-looking" citizens on the street and asking for identification. This practice incited and angered many U.S. citizens who were of Mexican American descent. Opponents in both the United States and Mexico complained of "police-state" methods, and Operation Wetback was abandoned.


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 offered amnesty to Hispanics living illegally in the U.S. before 1982.

SOURCE:

http://www.fairus.org/site/PageServer?pagename=research_research9605

The higher level of INS immigrant admissions from FY'89-'91 was due the inclusion of illegal immigrants who were given legal status as a result of the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) amnesty enacted in 1986.


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 granted amnesty to many illegal immigrants, resulting in the large increase after 1987


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

FOREIGN-BORN PEOPLE: In 2004, the U.S. population was about 293 million, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. By the Migration Policy Institute’s estimation, a total of 35.7 million foreign-born people were living here that year, including some 11.4 million naturalized citizens. That means about one in eight people—about 12.8 percent of the total population—was from somewhere else. The undocumented were 29 percent of the immigrant population, or 3.5 percent of the entire population.

Source: Jane Guskin and David L. Wilson, The Politics of Immigration: Questions and Answers (New York, NY: Monthly Review Press, 2007), 18-19.


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

Is the new wave of immigrants really new?At 12.8 percent, the proportion of immigrants in the population was about the same as it has been for most of U.S. history. Foreign-born people made up 9.7 percent of the population in 1850 and rose to 14.7 percent in 1910. The rise in the immigrant population from 1990 to 2000 was much less dramatic than the one from 1901 to 1910, when the population was just ninety-two million and the number of immigrants had jumped to 8.8 million.

Source: Jane Guskin and David L. Wilson, The Politics of Immigration: Questions and Answers (New York, NY: Monthly Review Press, 2007), 18

Percentage of Foreign-Born People in the U.S. (1880 to 2004)


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

The graph shows the 10-year moving average of the number of new immigrants relative to the size of the population. The rate of immigration in the most recent decade is about one-third the rate at the previous peak at the turn of the century.


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

The new wave may seem larger to many people now because immigrants are increasingly moving to small towns and suburbs.


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

Most immigrants still settle in California, New York, Texas, Florida, New Jersey, and Illinois, mainly in urban areas where they tend to blend in with the general population.

Source: Jane Guskin and David L. Wilson, The Politics of Immigration: Questions and Answers (New York, NY: Monthly Review Press, 2007), 18-19.


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

The dominant characteristic of the transition in the population of Texas at the beginning of the twenty-first century is the increase in the number of Hispanics.


Projected proportion of population by race ethnicity in texas 2000 2040

Projected Proportion of Population by Race/Ethnicity in Texas, 2000-2040*

http://txsdc.utsa.edu/presentations/

Demographers predicted that by the early twenty-first century, Anglos would comprise less than half of the Texas population.


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

Demographers predicted that by the early twenty-first century, Anglos would comprise less than half of the Texas population.


Projected proportion of population by race ethnicity in texas 2000 20401

Projected Proportion of Population by Race/Ethnicity in Texas, 2000-2040*

http://txsdc.utsa.edu/presentations/

Demographers predicted that by the early twenty-first century, Anglos would comprise less than half of the Texas population.


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

NAFTA has clearly resulted in astronomical trade increases between the U.S. and Mexico. Since 1993, the value of two-way U.S. trade with Mexico almost tripled, reaching $232 billion in 2002, and continues to grow twice as fast as U.S. trade with the rest of the world. As the numbers increase, so do the opportunities for entrepreneurs.


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

Mexico is the seventh largest importer in the world(Total imports in billion dollars, 2002)


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

Texas has increased its exports to Canada and Mexico by over $10 billion since NAFTA started. The Department of Commerce claims that 19,000 jobs are created for every $1 billion in added exports. Using that formula, NAFTA has created 190,000 jobs in Texas. Other job estimates claim higher numbers. NorAm Energy (Houston), J.C. Penney (Dallas), Dave & Buster's Inc. (Dallas), and American Telesource International Inc. (San Antonio) are among those Texas companies that have benefited from NAFTA.


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

Hilda, a factory worker, stands with her children in front of a typical tarpaper dwelling outside Ciudad Juarez near the U.S. border. Workers do not give last names for fear of losing their jobs. Source: www.anglicanjournal.com/127/05/


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

A woman draws water from a well in a squatter community where she lives in Tijuana, Mexico. The vast majority of the people in this community work in assembly plants in a nearby industrial park and lack basic services such as running water, sewage, electricity and adequate roads.


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

Toxic waste, Tijuana. Outside a closed battery recycling plant on Otay Mesa in Tijuana, Mexico, open pits of toxic waste pit the landscape, and chemicals leaching up from the ground form a crust on the ground. In the barrio of Chilpancingo, below the mesa, 19 children were born with no brains in 1993 and 1994, because of pollution from this and other maquiladoras on top of the mesa.


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

Many of the poorest barrios in Cd. Juárez are shrouded in pollution. Their residents generally work at one of the maquiladoras, making at most the equivalent of around $5 a week.


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

The federal government estimated that 700,000 illegal immigrants were living in Texas as of October 1996, a number surpassed only by California’s 2 million. That same year, legal permanent resident immigrants in Texas numbered 825,000. Since then, as policing techniques have grown more effective in border cities, an increasing number of illegal immigrants have resorted to crossing the river at isolated points, thereby undertaking a perilous trek across hundreds of miles of desert; many have not survived the journey. (p. 424.)

The Changing Face of Illegal Immigration

Gerardo Rivas

Gerardo Rivas sits with his Seven-year-old Olga Rivas, right, sits with her father Gerardo Rivas, in white shirt after she and her family were caught crossing illegally into Arizona from Sasabe, Mexico, Tuesday, April 25, 2006. Olga walked through the desert for fourteen hours with her family before being caught by the U.S. Border Patrol. (AP Photo/Gregory Bull)


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

In the 1930s, countless thousands of honest, hard-working people lost their homes and farms to the foreclosure’s hammer. The federal government responded by paying farmers to leave their land fallow. This policy helped to reduce the oversupply of agricultural goods, but it also motivated landowners to evict tenant farmers. Many of these farmers then became migrant farm laborers.


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

In the late 1930s, signs on Route 66 outside of Tulsa, Oklahoma proclaimed:

NO JOBS in California

IF YOU are looking for work-KEEP OUT

6 Men for Every Job

No State Relief Available for Non-Residents

Oklahoma Sharecropper Stalled on California Highway (1937)


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

La Pisca (cotton picking.)


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

El Desaje(hoeing)


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

Mexican-American farm life in the postwar period meant twelve-to-fourteen-hour days in the fields performing strenuous hand labor such as el desaje(hoeing) or la pisca (cotton picking.) (Arnold de León, “A People with Many Histories: Mexican Americans in Texas” in The Texas Heritage, 4th ed., 216.)


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

Source: cnn.com


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

Illegal Immigration

The Changing Face of Illegal Immigration

Gerardo Rivas

Gerardo Rivas sits with his Seven-year-old Olga Rivas, right, sits with her father Gerardo Rivas, in white shirt after she and her family were caught crossing illegally into Arizona from Sasabe, Mexico, Tuesday, April 25, 2006. Olga walked through the desert for fourteen hours with her family before being caught by the U.S. Border Patrol. (AP Photo/Gregory Bull)


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

Fear found at http://www.alpinesurvival.com/


Bracero card issued to jes s campoya in 1951 in el paso texas

  • Ten Issues More Pressing than Illegal Immigration into the United States

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