Semiconductor equipment fire suppression compliance
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Semiconductor Equipment Fire Suppression Compliance. for SESHA North Texas Chapter by Matt Wyman Semiconductor Division Manager KOETTER FIRE PROTECTION March 22, 2007. Koetter Fire Protection. Specialize in Semiconductor Equipment Fire Protection Global Design & Install CO2 & FWS

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Semiconductor Equipment Fire Suppression Compliance

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Semiconductor equipment fire suppression compliance

Semiconductor EquipmentFire Suppression Compliance

for

SESHA North Texas Chapter

by

Matt Wyman

Semiconductor Division Manager

KOETTER FIRE PROTECTION

March 22, 2007


Koetter fire protection

Koetter Fire Protection

  • Specialize in Semiconductor Equipment Fire Protection

    • Global Design & Install CO2 & FWS

    • Bulk Control Systems for CO2 & FWS

    • Corrosive Applications (Combustible Plastics)

  • SEMI Standards Fire Protection Task Force Leader

  • Specialize in Equipment Design & Integration

  • Code Review & Compliance Consulting

    • NFPA/FM Standards

    • SEMI Standards

  • Semiconductor Fire Protection Training Seminars

    • KFP Test & Training Bench

  • Industry Forms

  • Industry White Papers

  • Industry Presentations (SESHA)

  • 7 Texas Locations & International


Overview

Overview

  • Are my new and/or existing fire suppression systems compliant?

  • “Quick” CO2 Design Review

  • Local Application Nozzles

  • Fire Detectors

  • NFPA 12 2005 Changes

  • Bulk Systems

  • Hatsuta Cabinex Equipment

  • Fine Water Spray

  • Fire Suppression Submittals


Fire codes

Fire Codes

  • IFC2006

    • Combustible Tool >4ft. Wide

    • Sprinkler Head Inside or Gaseous Fire Suppression

  • FM DS 7-7 “Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities”

    • CO2 or FWS (Fine Water Spray)

    • CO2 is most widely utilized

    • Extinguish 13kW Fire

  • NFPA 12 “Carbon Dioxide”

  • SEMI S14 “Safety Guidelines for Fire Risk Assessment & Mitigation for Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment”

  • SEMI S2 “Environmental, Health, & Safety Guideline for Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment”

    • Chapter 14 “Fire Protection”


Co2 design

CO2 Design

  • Total Flood (TF)

  • Enclosed Compartments

    • Mini-Environments

    • Plenums, Head Cases, Chemical Cabinets

  • 50% CO2 Concentration

  • 60 Second Discharge

  • Compensate CO2 Demand for:

    • Process Exhaust Ventilation

      • Damper Violates SEMI S2

    • Unclosable Openings


Co2 design1

CO2 Design

  • Local Application (LA)

  • Open Compartments

    • Working Surfaces

  • Rate by Volume

    • “Assumed” 3D Volume

  • 30 Second Discharge

    • No Compensation for Exhaust Ventilation & Openings

  • Combination System (TF & LA)

    • Typically 30 Second Discharge


Existing co2 systems

Existing CO2 Systems

  • “Quick CO2 Review”

    • No Calculations

    • Check that Supply = Demand

  • Typical “Wet Bench”

    • Exhaust Rates = ~125cfm/linear foot (typical)

  • “Quick” Demand Calcs

    • TF Demand = 11.5% of Volume (60sec)

      • Volume = Dimension + Exhaust (60sec)

    • LA Demand = Average

      • (8ft = 50lbs, 6ft = 35lbs, 4ft = 20lbs)


Quick co2 review

Quick CO2 Review

  • Example – 8’L x 4’D x 6’H Enclosed Plastic Bench-100lbs. CO2

    • Total Volume (TF) = 192cuft x 11.5% = 22.1 lbs.

    • Exhaust Volume (TF) = 125cfm/ft x 8ft x 11.5% = 115 lbs.

    • Total Demand (TF) = 137 lbs. CO2

    • CO2 Supply = NOT ADEQUATE

  • Example – 6’L x 4’D x 5’H Open Solvent Bench-100lbs CO2

    • Working Surface (LA) = 35 lbs. (Typical)

    • Plenum Volume (TF) = 6ft x 4ft x 3ft = 72cuft x 11.5% = 8.3 lbs.

    • Plenum Exhaust (TF) = 125cfm/ft x 6ft x 11.5%/2 = 43.1 lbs

    • Total Demand = 86.4 lbs.

    • CO2 System = ADEQUATE


Nozzle comparisons

Nozzle Comparisons

  • LA Nozzles

    • All have “cone” to absorb discharge pressure

    • Reflected discharge from orifice

    • Less exit velocity (same flow rate)

    • Nozzle absorbs most 600psi discharge pressure

  • TF Nozzles

    • “V” Nozzle is “Vent” nozzle (TF)

    • Straight discharge from orifice

    • Full effects of 600+psi discharge pressure on tool (especially baths)

    • Much higher velocity


Local application nozzles

Local Application Nozzles

  • Working Surface Areas (Wet)

    • Cone shaped for “Soft” discharge

    • Cone shape provides larger 2D coverage area

    • Nozzles pointed downward towards back wall

    • Provides “rolling” effect across Working Surface

Front View

Side View


La nozzle listings approvals

All Local Application Nozzles Must Have Coverage Chart

2D Coverage of LA Nozzle

Ansul CR D Nozzle

Ansul D Nozzle

Identical Nozzles

FM Listing = FM testing

LA Nozzle Listings/Approvals


La nozzle coverage

LA Nozzle Coverage

  • Does this apply to other manufacturers and models?

    • Ansul

      • Has Other LA Nozzles

      • Not for Wet Bench (different coverage chart)

    • Hatsuta Cabinex-EWT

      • Has FM Approved LA Nozzle for Wet Bench

      • Has Own Coverage Chart

    • Chemetron

      • Has FM Approved LA Nozzle(s)

      • Not for Wet Bench (different coverage chart)

    • Kidde

      • Has FM Approved LA Nozzle(s)

      • Not for Wet Bench - (different coverage chart)

      • What about Kidde “V” Nozzle for LA?


Kidde v nozzle

Kidde “V” Nozzle

  • Kidde “V” Nozzle from Compliance review

    • 1st - Listed & Approved by UL/FM as TF Nozzle ONLY

    • No LA Coverage Chart in Design Manual

      • NOT LISTED/APPROVED FOR USE AS LA NOZZLE

    • “V”=“Vent” type is designed for “high velocity” discharge to overcome exhaust ventilation.

    • 2nd - CAN CREATE A SEVERE SPLASH HAZARD

      • Many documented cases where discharge splashed acid baths

      • Dangerous Exposure to Personnel

    • 3rd - Kidde began manufacturing and listing of Stainless Steel “V” nozzle in June 2005.

      • Previously only available in brass.

      • Previous SS installations were not listed/approved components

    • 4th - Not supported by Kidde for LA Coverage


Kidde v nozzle1

Kidde “V” Nozzle

  • Copy of Letter from Kidde regarding use of “V” Nozzle for LA Coverage

  • Dated May 26, 2006


Ss corrosion protection

HalarCoating for Stainless Steel Nozzles, Fittings, & Tubing in Corrosive Areas

SS Corrosion Protection

CO2 Tubing

CO2 Fittings

CO2 Nozzles


Detection

Detection

  • Optical Flame Detection (13kW Fire)

    • Solvent Areas

    • Corrosive Areas

    • High Exhaust Rate Areas

  • Heat Detection

    • Low Exhaust Rates – 400cfm limit

    • Slower Response = Tolerate Larger Fire

    • Linear Heat Detection (Corrosive Areas)

  • Cross-Zoning Flame & Heat Detectors (Asia)

    • Prevents “False Discharges”

    • But Negative Affect to Performance


Flame detectors

Flame Detectors

  • Infrared (IR) & Ultraviolet (UV) Sensors

  • UV

    • Quartz Window

    • Can be “Masked” by

    • Gases, Smoke, Fumes

  • IR

    • Near Band (4.3µ)

      • Hydrocarbon Fire

    • Wide Band (0.7-3.5µ)

    • Visible (0.4-0.7µ)

  • Sierra DCR1(S)

    • UV/IR

    • Cheapest

    • Leakage Problems

      • Quartz Window

      • HF


Flame detectors1

Flame Detectors

  • Cabinex SX-7000

    • Triple Band IR (Near)

    • Reliability?

    • Chemical Compatibility?

  • Det-Tronics PM-5MP

    • Dual Band IR (Near)

      • Really Fast

      • False Alarm Issues

  • Fire Sentry FS7

    • Near Band, Wide Band™, & Visible IR

      • Hydrocarbon & Non-hydrocarbon

    • Alarm & Pre-Alarm Outputs

    • 5-sec Alarm Verification (Flash Fires)

    • FirePic History

    • Most Reliable Flame Detector!


Flame detector reliability

Flame Detector Reliability

  • False Alarm Immunity

  • KFP TEST

    • Compare Reliability of FS7 vs. PM-5MP to “Steam”

    • Blackbody IR Radiation

      • Alarm Signal (False Alarm)

    • 300ºF - 600ºF

    • 6” – 36” Distance

  • Det-Tronics Technical Note

    • Alarm from Mini Maglite @ 2” w/o window

    • Alarm from Maglite @ 1-3” with & w/o window

    • Alarm from Quartz Halogen Light @ 3ft.


Spot smoke detectors

Spot Smoke Detectors

  • 2 Types

    • 120VAC “First Alert” Spot Smoke Detector

      • UL Listed as RESIDENTIAL detector

    • 24VDC Fire Alarm System Spot Smoke Detector

      • UL Listed for use with compatible “cross-listed” FACP

  • SEMI S2 Section 14.4.4 Fire Detection, Alarm, & Controls

    • 14.4.4.1&2 All detectors, alarms, and controls be accepted and listed by an accredited laboratory (example UL or FM) and installed in accordance with the terms of that acceptance and appropriate national or international standards (ex. NFPA 72)

  • Spot Detectors are NOT Compliant (NFPA/SEMI/UL)

    • Without connection to Fire Control Panel

  • Spot Detectors require ~2.5% obs./ft. concentration

    • Not effective in Exhausted or “Open” Compartments


Nfpa 12 2005

NFPA 12 2005

  • NEW Changes to NFPA 12 2005 Edition

    • Retroactive upon AHJ

  • Labels must meet ANSI Z535

    • Orange “Warning” Color

    • “Warning” Triangle Symbol

    • Aspiration Symbol

    • Outside Protected Space

    • At Manual Activation

  • SEMI S1 Compliant


Nfpa 12 20051

NFPA 12 2005

  • Lockout Valves (Not Required)

    • Required except where personnel can’t enter space (4.3.3.6)

    • Where CO2 can migrate to expose personnel (4.3.3.6.1)

    • System should “Lockout” during maintenance or testing (4.3.3.6.3)

    • “Lockout” Valve should be supervised

    • Pressure Switch installed between Supply and Lockout Valves (4.5.4.11)

  • Disable/By-Pass Switch (Required)

    • Electrically operated systems should have service disconnect switch (4.3.3.7)

    • Switch should be supervised (keyed)


Bulk systems

Bulk Systems

  • High Pressure or Low Pressure CO2 or FWS

    • Large Supply of Agent to Protect Multiple Systems

      • Main & Reserve

    • Controlled Release of CO2

  • Benefits

    • Floor Space

    • Controls

    • Tool Uptime

    • Life Cycle Cost

  • Negative

    • Higher Install Cost

  • Major Retrofit or New Fab Project


Bulk co2 compliance

Bulk CO2 Compliance

  • What is wrong with this design?

  • 40 Tools on 1 HP Manifold System

  • 1st - Largest FACP has maximum approval of 10 independent releasing hazards

  • Solution – Minimum of 4 releasing panels


Bulk co2 design

Bulk CO2 Design

  • FACP Approval/Listings

  • Limited to maximum of 10 independent releasing hazards

    • 10 Tools


Bulk co2 compliance1

Bulk CO2 Compliance

  • Anything else?

  • 2nd - Location of

    Selector Valves

    • AT EACH TOOL?

  • Where does CO2 go?

  • What about phase change in pipe?

  • How do you Calc this?

    • CAN’T!!


Bulk co2 design1

Bulk CO2 Design

  • Selector Valves Must Be @ CO2 Supply Location

    • Minimize CO2 Loss

    • Per Listed Hydraulic Calculation Programs


Hp manifold configuration

Slab

Horn / Strobe Light

LCD80 Wet Deck Annunciator

HP Manifold Configuration

Deck

Manual Pull

Keyed By-Pass Switch

STI

CO2 Line

Nozzle(s)

Sensor(s)

Owner: Tech Serv

Fab Level

Selector Valve(s) & Flow Switch(s)

Owner: Fac Ops

SLC Loop (Device Signals)

Other Decks (10 max)

CO2

Cylinder

Bank

RS485 Comms (Signal Data)

Copper (Comms)

Fiber Network (Comms)

Valve Control Signal

Manifold

Control Panel

Building Panel Interface

Manifold Network Panel(s)

Sub Fab Level


Hatsuta cabinex ewt

HATSUTA CABINEX-EWT

  • FM Approved for Semiconductor Tools

    • September 2004

  • Manufactured in Osaka, Japan

  • Specifically designed for Semiconductor

  • Total Flood & Local Application

  • Excellent OEM product!

    • Packaged cabinet for cylinder(s) & panel

    • Worldwide Compliance!

  • CABINEX-EN = NOT COMPLIANT IN USA


Cabinex ewt

Cabinex-EWT

  • Control Cabinet

    • Up to 2, 100lb. Cylinders

      • 50 & 100-lbs.

      • 1.8’ x 1.7’ x 7.0’ Cabinet

    • Integrated Panel

      • Up to 32 “Addressable” Inputs

      • Cross-Zoning Capable

      • Single Release Zone

        • Solenoid & Gas Cartridge Actuators

    • Popular with OEMs

      • TEL, DNS, AMAT


Fine water spray fws

Fine Water Spray (FWS)

  • Securiplex

    • Wet Bench Application

    • FM Approved

  • Extinguishing Agent

    • Fab DI Water (DIW)

    • Fab Nitrogen (N2)

      • Mixed at nozzle

      • Dual piping

      • Unlimited Supply

  • Low Pressure

    • PVDF or PFA Nozzles & Tubing


Submittal documentation

Stamped Drawings of CO2 Mechanical & Electrical Systems including Isometric

FPE or NICET Level 3

CO2 Hazard Design Demand Calculations

CO2 Hydraulic Flow Calculations

Power Supply & Battery Backup Calculations

Bill of Material List

Equipment Data Sheet Submittals

Sequence of Events

Acceptance Test & Certification Form

Submittal Documentation


Co2 solid modeling

CO2 Solid Modeling


Questions

Questions

  • Any Questions?

    Matt Wyman

    Semiconductor Division Manager

    KOETTER FIRE PROTECTION

    Dallas, Texas

    972.333.4965 – cell

    [email protected]


Discharge tests

Discharge Tests

  • Demonstration

    • Mock of Open Wet Bench

    • 8’W x 1.6’W x 2.5’H

    • Recessed baths

    • Exhaust Ventilation

  • Various Discharges

    • Various Configurations

  • VIDEO


Test results

Test Results

  • CO2 Concentrations

    • See Table

  • Analysis

    • All Extinguish Fire Source

      • IPA/PP Pan Fire

    • Measure CO2 concentrations at various points

    • Vent type nozzles had significant splashing results

      • Not recommended over open baths


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