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Jews in America. By Ellis H. Adler. Information. Prior to Coming to America. They were dispersed from there homeland Palestine in the 1 st century Numerous small communities of Jew in Europe Discriminated by the church and civic authorities

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Jews in America

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Jews in America

By Ellis H. Adler

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Prior to Coming to America

  • They were dispersed from there homeland Palestine in the 1st century

  • Numerous small communities of Jew in Europe

  • Discriminated by the church and civic authorities

  • Restricted to ghettos and forbidden from owning land

  • Couldn’t be landowners, so became merchants specialized in long-distance trade

  • Series of expulsions

    • England-1290

    • France-1394

    • Spain-1492

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Reasons for coming to America

  • First Jews came as individuals, not groups

  • Few came as crew members with explorers—some with Columbus

  • Some were conversos-hidden Jews that “converted” during inquisition

  • Spanish Inquisition in 1492-Jews made to convert or expelled

  • Many Jews fled to Europe and colonies

  • 1755-earthquake in Portugal that destroyed many jails some Jews escaped to American colonies

  • Less persecution in colonies

  • Sephardic Jew came-fleeing Inquisition

  • Ashkenazi Jews came from Germany, Holand, and England

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Spanish Inquisition

  • Jews were made to convert or they would be torture and expelled

  • Jews fled to:

    • North Africa

    • Turkey

    • Poland

    • Protestant Europe

  • Spanish and Portuguese Jews also went to Amsterdam (Holand)

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Immigration and New Netherlands

  • 1654-Jacob Barisom and Solomon Petersen first Jews to come to America from Holland

  • 23 Jewish refugees from Brazil arrive in New Amsterdam

  • Governor Peter Stuyvest wanted to expel Jews, Lutherans, and Quakers from New Netherland

  • The colony was owned by the Dutch West India Company that had several Jews on its board of directors

    • Peter Stuyvest overruled

  • 1656-Stuyvest order to let Jews trade freely and own real estate

  • 1657-full civil rights granted to Jews by Peter Stuyvest

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Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews

  • First Jewish immigrants were Sephardic Jew from Brazil

  • Sephardic Jew originally from Iberian Peninsula

  • Brazil was under Dutch rule (tolerant of Jews), but the Portuguese took over (non-tolerant)

  • 1656-First Jewish congregation made in New Amsterdam

  • 21 years later-Congregation established in Newport, Rhode Island

  • 1702-Ashkenazi Jews from Germanic Europe arrive

  • Joined synagogues developed by Sephardic Jews

  • Sephardic Jews originally didn’t accept the Ashkenazi Jews

  • Over time 2 groups blended and inter-married

  • 1776-2000 Jews in the American colonies

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Jews in America

  • 1 Jew: 1000 settlers

  • Jews did not spend time fighting for political rights wanted to practice their religions and develop livelihood

  • Many became merchants-common to trade with Curacao significant population from Amsterdam

  • Jews built ships

    • Merchant ships trade with England, Holland, Newfoundland, Curacao, Jamaica, and St. Christopher

    • Trades salt, sugar, slaves, bottles, bricks, coconuts, pork, textiles, tobacco, and onions

  • Jews set up trade through families and commercial ties they had with Jewish communities in West Indies, Britain, and Holland

  • Also traded with New Christians (forced Jewish converts or their descendants) in Spain and Portugal

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Jewish Experience in America

  • Became good traders

  • Settled in New Port, Charleston, Savannah, and Philadelphia

  • At first Christians distrusted Jews and denied them basic rights as citizens

  • 1665-New Amsterdam became New York England took over Jews guaranteed religious tolerance

  • Won right to be nuturalized (trade freely and worship publicly) These rights were also granted in Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and New York

  • Financially supported revolution

  • Able to fight in the military

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Jews and revolution

  • Jews were on both sides-this was unusual-most were on side of colonists

  • Many Jewish merchants gave their fleets to colonist’s and gave financial support

  • Jews joined army

  • Simon was a Jewish merchant who invested in Henry rifle which was used in Revolution

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Rights for Jews Post-Revoltion

  • Many states had a pledge of Christianity that had to be said before taking office

  • 1791-Bill of Rights amended to Constitution-one at a time the states changed their constitutions and no long required the pledge

  • 1779-Thomas Jefferson drafted the Virginia Statue of Religious Freedom

  • Virginia became first state to grant religious and political freedom to all

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  • 1654-Peter Stuyvest asked to not let the first Jews into New Amsterdam, but the Dutch West India Company responded that Jews were allowed in

  • 1661-Kig Charles II gives privileges of Englishmen to all settlers in Jamaica, including Jews

  • 1664-England takes over New Amsterdam renaming it New York guaranteed freedom to all inhabitants

    • Jews guaranteed freedom to worship

  • 1665-Rhode Island gives right to vote to Jews

  • 1674-Duke of York grants full religious freedom

  • 1689-England accepted Toleration Act allowed more rights for Jew in New York

  • 1730-200 Jews in New York built first synagogue and school-Shearith Israel

  • 1774-Francis Salvador first Jew elected to General Assembly of South Carolina

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Terms to know

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1st 5 terms

  • Sephardic-A group of Jews from Spain and Portugal that were kicked out in 1492 and went mostly to North Africa, the Balkans, Western Europe, and elsewhere; they are diverse culturally from Ashkenazi

  • Ashkenazi-Jews from central and eastern Europe that vary greatly from the Sephardic Jews—in liturgy, religious customs, and how they pronounce Hebrew

  • Diaspora-After Babylonia took Palestine captive the Jews were dispersed around the world

  • Assimilate-The process of adopting new customs and blending into another culture

  • Inquisition-The purpose of inquisitions is to get rid of non-believers of a religion or of a nation, it can be lead by either civil or church authorities. The Spanish Inquisition that took place in 1492 was the most deadly Inquisition and many Jews were massacred

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2nd 5 terms

  • Amalgam-a blend or combination

  • Conversos-hidden Jews who “converted” during Inquisition but really secretly practiced Judaism

  • New Christians-Jews and their descendants who were forced to convert during Inquisition

  • Ant-semetic-a person who discriminates against or is prejudice or hostile towards Jews

  • Burgher-an inhabitant of a town, esp. a member of the middle class

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3rd 5 terms

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Lieutenant-colonel Solomon Bush

  • Highest ranking Jewish official in Continental army

  • Born-October 13, 1753 to Mathias Bush and Tabitha Mears

  • 1776-Joined Pennsylvania militia

  • 1777-Appointed Deputy Adjutant General

  • Picked up enough medical training in combat that people referred to him as Dr. Bush

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  • Lived from 1747-1785

  • Polish Jew that migrated to Pennsylvania

  • Wealthy merchant and auctioneer

  • Helped finance the revolution

  • Spy for America in British-held New York

  • He was arrested and then escaped fled to Philadelphia

  • When Continental Congress met he helped house and support many member

  • Helped negotiate aid from France and holland

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Luiz Gomez

  • Spanish Jew fist to purchase land in America

  • Fled to France during Inquisition

  • Received papers of denization-right of citizen

  • Purchased land 5 miles north of Newburgh, New York

    • Jews weren’t allowed to purchase land in Europe

  • Built a stone house on lot that served as seasonal trading post

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J. Simon

  • Frontiersman and trader

  • Owned a lot of land in Pennsylvania

  • Paid for western expedition by Daniel Boone

  • Partners with William Henry who developed the Henry frontier rifle

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  • What was the original name of New York when it was under Dutch rule?

    • New Amsterdam

    • York

    • Holland

  • What areas did most Jews flee to during Spanish Inquisition?

    • South Africa, Sweden, Finland

    • North Africa, Turkey, Poland, Protestant Europe

    • South Africa and India

  • Which 3 groups did Peter Stuyvesant the governor of Netherlands want to expel?

    • Jew, Lutherans, Muslims

    • Muslims, Catholics, and Quakers

    • Jews, Lutherans, and Quakers

  • Where was the first migration of Jews from?

    • Sephardic Jews from Brazil

    • Jews from England

    • Jews from Russia

  • Why did this group migrate?

    • England attacked by Portuguese

    • Brazil taken over by Portuguese

    • Brazil taken over by Spain

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  • A) New Amsterdam

  • B) North Africa, Turkey, Poland, Protestant Europe

  • C) Jews, Lutherans, and Quakers

  • A) Sephardic Jews from Brazil

  • B) Brazil taken over by Portugeus

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6) When and why did New Amsterdam become New York?

  • Spanish took over in 1665

  • French took over in 1665

  • English took over in 1665

    7) What rights were Jews guaranteed by the English and what rights did they gain?

  • Right to vote

  • Religious tolerance

  • Right to hold public office

    8) What were major country(ies) that expelled Jews and what years?

  • England-1290

  • France-1394

  • Spain-1492

  • All of the above

    9) When were civil rights granted to Jews by Stuyvest?

  • 1657

  • 1700

  • 1750

    10) Who was Haym Solomon

  • Jewish merchant who financed revolution

  • Jewish spy for America

  • Help support and house members of Continental Army

  • All of the above

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6) C) English took over in 1665

7) B) Religious tolerance

8) D) All of the above

9) A) 1657

10) D)All of the above

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  • Who took over Brazil from the Dutch, and what did they do to the previous inhabitants?

    • Spain

    • Portuguese

    • Germany

  • What company ordered Governor Peter Stuyvesant to permit the Jewish refugees from Recife, Brazil to settle permanently in New Netherland?

    • British East India Company

    • Dutch West India Company

  • What did Governor Peter Stuyvesant decree that Jew of New Netherland had in 1657?

    • Civic rights

    • Right to vote

    • Right to hold public office

  • Which of the following gave political rights to Jews

    • Massachusetts

    • Connecticut

    • New York

  • Who founded Rhode Island that gave Jews and Catholics that right to hold public office?

    • Roger Williams

    • George Dinwiddie

    • William Penn

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  • B) Portuguese

  • B) Dutch West India Company

  • A) Civil Rights

  • C) New York

  • A) Roger Williams

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  • What groups did most Jewish merchants deal with?

    • Unitarian and Anglican

    • Quaker and Spaniards

    • West Indies, Britain, Holland, Spain, and Portugal

  • Who are conversos?

    • People who convert to Judaism

    • Hidden Jews converted during Inquisition

    • A group of antis emetics

  • What did the Toleration Acts of 1689 lead to in New York

    • More rights for Jews

    • Less rights for Jews

    • Increase in anti-Semitic behaviors

  • As of 1674 what were the Jews not able to do

    • Be merchants

    • Build synagogues

    • Freedom to worship (in homes)

  • Which side of the Revolution did most Jews support?

    • The colonies

    • England

    • Neither-they stayed out of it

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6) C) West Indies, Britain, Holland, Spain, and Portugal

7) B) Hidden Jews converted during Inquisition

8) A) More rights for Jews

9) B) Build synagogues

10) A) the colonies

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