Chapter 2 the cell in action
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Chapter 2– The Cell In Action. Section 1 – Exchange with the Environment. Diffusion. Osmosis.

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Chapter 2– The Cell In Action

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Chapter 2 the cell in action

Chapter 2– The Cell In Action

Section 1 – Exchange with the Environment


Chapter 2 the cell in action

Diffusion

Osmosis

______________________________ - The movement from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration______________________________ - The diffusion of water from areas where they are more concentrated to areas where they are less concentrated.______________________________ - a membrane that lets only certain substances pass through.

Selectively permeable


Chapter 2 the cell in action

 What happens to a red blood cell when it is put into a salty solution? What happens when a wilted plant is watered?

Water moves OUT, salt moves IN

Cell gets SMALLER!!

Water moves IN.

Cells gets LARGER!!


Chapter 2 the cell in action

Passive transport

high

_________________________________________ - the movement of particles across a cell membrane without the use of energy. Particles move from an area of ______________ concentration to an area of _____________ concentration.

________________________________________ - the movement of particles across a cell membrane with the use of energy. Particles move from an area of ______________ concentration to an area of _____________ concentration.

Large particles move in to a cell by the process of ____________________________ and out of a cell by the process of _______________________. Both processes require the use of a sac called a __________________________.

low

Active transport

low

high

endocytosis

exocytosis

vesicle


Chapter 2 the cell in action1

Chapter 2 – The Cell In Action

Section 2 – Cell Energy


Respiration and photosynthesis

Respiration and Photosynthesis


Chapter 2 the cell in action

Photosynthesis – process in which autotrophs use light energy from the sun to produce food.


Chapter 2 the cell in action

How does food store energy?

PHOTOSYNTHESIS– the process in which the plastids of plant cells take energy from the Sun, adds it to water and carbon dioxide, and changes it to food and oxygen.

H2O + CO2 + E  C6H12O6+ O2


Carbon dioxide c 6 h 12 o 6 water oxygen energy atp

Photosynthesis

carbon dioxide + C6H12O6water  + + oxygen Energy (ATP)

reactants

products


Heterotrophs organisms that can t perform photosynthesis

Heterotrophs – organisms that can’t perform photosynthesis

So how do heterotrophs get their food?


How do cells get energy from food

How do cells get energy from food?

Respiration – the process in which the mitochondria of cells takes food, adds it to oxygen, and changes it to water, carbon dioxide, and energy

C6H12O6 + O2 H2O + CO2 + E


C 6 h 12 o 6 carbon dioxide water oxygen energy atp

Respiration

C6H12O6carbon dioxide +  + water oxygen + Energy (ATP)


Respiration occurs in the mitochondria

Respiration occurs in the mitochondria.


Aerobic respiration cellular respiration that takes place with oxygen present

AEROBIC RESPIRATION - Cellular respiration that takes place with oxygen present

ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION – energy can be taken from food without oxygen present


What is fermentation

WHAT IS FERMENTATION?

  • Fermentation is the creation of energy without using oxygen

  • Example: marathon running… lactic acid and yeast cells


Chapter 2 the cell in action2

Chapter 2 – The Cell In Action

Section 3 – The Cell Cycle


The cell cycle

The Cell Cycle

  • The DNA in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells gets rolled into long rods called chromosomes

  • In order for each cell to divide (reproduce) the DNA must get copied to make 2 new complete cells through a process called mitosis


Chromosomes

Chromosomes

  • Make up of our DNA

  • Tight coils or rod like structures

  • Humans have 46 chromosomes of DNA in EVERY single cell


Chapter 2 the cell in action

Interphase

  • cell is not dividing

  • cell is growing, performing respiration, producing, photosynthesizing, doing whatever functions it is supposed to do

  • At some point, the cell can’t diffuse fast enough and that signals the end of interphase

  • At the very end of interphase, the chromatin makes an exact copy of itself in a process called DNA replication.


Interphase

Interphase


Mitosis

Mitosis

The part of a cell’s life cycle when the cell divides it nuclear contents into 2 nuclei which are identical

Mitosis consists of 4 steps:

Prophase

Metaphase

Anaphase

Telophase


Chapter 2 the cell in action

Prophase

  • all sub-cellular organelles disappear

  • centrioles separate and move to opposite poles

  • chromatin become chromosomes

  • centrioles shoot off spindlefibers (short and long)


1 prophase

1-Prophase


Chapter 2 the cell in action

chromosomes line up at the equator

Metaphase


2 metaphase

2-Metaphase


Chapter 2 the cell in action

Anaphase

  • centromere splits

  • sister chromatids attach to the short spindle fibers

  • short spindle fibers shorten and bring the sister chromatids to opposite poles.


3 anaphase

3-Anaphase


Chapter 2 the cell in action

Telophase

  • chromatids become chromatin (one at each pole)

  • spindle disappears

  • subcellular organelles reappear


4 telophase

4-Telophase


Cytokinesis

Cytokinesis

  • The part of a cell’s life cycle when the cytoplasm divides into 2 cells which are identical


Plant and animal cytokinesis

Plant and Animal Cytokinesis

Plant cell-cell plate

Animal cell-cleavage furrow


Cytokinesis mitosis is done

Cytokinesis-mitosis is done!

  • Last stage of cellular reproduction, the cell cycle

    • Cytoplasm splits apart, there are 2 new identical cells


Cytokinesis in animal cells

Cytokinesis in Animal Cells

  • Cell membrane pinches in at equator

  • Cell membrane pinches in at equator


Cytokinesis in plant cells

Cytokinesis in Plant Cells

  • Cell plate forms at equator and grows out to the cell wall


Chapter 2 the cell in action

Interphase


Chapter 2 the cell in action

Prophase


Chapter 2 the cell in action

Metaphase


Chapter 2 the cell in action

Anaphase


Chapter 2 the cell in action

Telophase


Chapter 2 the cell in action

Prophase


Chapter 2 the cell in action

Metaphase


Chapter 2 the cell in action

Anaphase


Chapter 2 the cell in action

Telophase


Chapter 2 the cell in action

Interphase


Chapter 2 the cell in action

Prophase


Chapter 2 the cell in action

Metaphase


Chapter 2 the cell in action

Anaphase


Chapter 2 the cell in action

Telophase


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