Age of jackson
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Age of Jackson. Unit IVA AP United States History. Jacksonian Democracy. The “Common Man” Universal male suffrage Strict constructionism Laissez-faire economics Democratization of nominations for elected office Party caucuses to national conventions

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Age of jackson

Age of Jackson

Unit IVA

AP United States History


Jacksonian democracy

Jacksonian Democracy

  • The “Common Man”

  • Universal male suffrage

  • Strict constructionism

  • Laissez-faire economics

  • Democratization of nominations for elected office

    • Party caucuses to national conventions

  • Increase in local and state elected offices

  • Rise of third parties

  • Spoils system

  • Manifest Destiny

“County Election”

George Caleb Bingham

1852


Election of 1824

Election of 1824

  • Democratic-Republicans fracturing

  • Election of 1824 has four candidates

    • Sec. of State John Quincy Adams

    • General/Senator Andrew Jackson

    • Sec. of Treasury William Crawford

    • Speaker of the House Henry Clay

  • “Corrupt Bargain”

    • House of Representatives chooses Adams

  • Impact

    • Establishment of Democrats and National Republicans

    • Second Party System


House vote for election of 1824

House Vote for Election of 1824


John quincy adams nr 1825 1829

John Quincy Adams (NR) (1825-1829)

  • Son of Federalist John Adams

  • National Republican

  • Corrupt Bargain

    • Most of his proposals rejected by a pro-Jackson Congress

    • Alienated the South and West

  • Tariff of 1828

    • Tariff of Abominations


Second party system 1828 1854

Second Party System (1828-1854)

  • Democrats:

    • States’ rights

    • Limited government

    • Laissez-faire

    • Expansionism

    • Pro-slavery

    • Equal opportunity

    • South and West

    • Yeoman farmers, working class, southern planters, immigrants

  • National Republicans/Whigs:

    • American System

    • Strong federal government

    • Mixed on slavery

    • Social conservatives

    • New England

    • Upper and middle class professionals, evangelical Protestants

  • Anti-Masonic Party:

    • issue party concerned about Freemasons

    • promoted economic nationalism and social conservatism

  • Liberty Party:

    • abolitionist party

  • Free Soil Party:

    • Prevent expansion of slavery

Andrew Jackson

Henry Clay


Election of 1828

Election of 1828

  • Andrew Jackson (D)

  • John Q. Adams (NR)

  • Political campaigns on national levels

    • Coffin Handbills

    • Jackson’s wife


Old hickory

“Old Hickory”

  • The Common Man

    • Duelist, Gambler, Bar Fighter, Pipe-Smoker, Tobacco Chewer

    • War Hero

  • Spoils System

    • Hired loyalists and friends

  • A Strong Executive

    • Mandate from the people

    • “It was settled by the Constitution, the laws, and the whole practice of the government that the entire executive power is vested in the President of the United States.”

  • Endorsed states’ rights

    • Considered himself a Jeffersonian Democrat


Andrew jackson d 1829 1837

Andrew Jackson (D) (1829-1837)

  • Veto Power

    • Maysville Road (1830)

  • Peggy Eaton Affair

  • “Kitchen Cabinet”

    • Private group of trusted advisors

  • Major Issues

    • Native Removal

    • Nullification Crisis

    • Bank of the United States


Jackson and native removal

Jackson and Native Removal

  • Indian Removal Act (1830)

    • Negotiate with Native tribes for removal west to lands west of the Mississippi

  • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831)

    • Determined Native tribes not to be “foreign states” but as “domestic dependent nations”

  • Worcester v. Georgia (1832)

    • Determined sovereignty of Native tribes therefore not subject to state laws

    • Apocryphal: “John Marshall had made his decision. Now let him enforce it!” - Andrew Jackson

  • Trail of Tears

    • Many died from exposure, disease, starvation

    • 60,000 removed; 15,000 died


Jackson and the nullification crisis

Jackson and the Nullification Crisis

  • Tariff of Abominations (1828)

  • South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828)

    • State could nullify federal law or possibly secede if necessary

  • Webster-Hayne Debates (1830)

    • Robert Hayne (SC)

    • Daniel Webster (MA): “Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!”

  • Jefferson Day Dinner (1830)

    • Andrew Jackson: “Our federal Union: It must be preserved.”

    • John C. Calhoun: “The Union: Next to our Liberty, the most dear.”

  • Tariff of 1832

  • South Carolina’s Ordinance of Nullification (1832)

  • Force Bill (1833)

  • Tariff of 1833


Election of 1832

Election of 1832

  • Andrew Jackson (D)

  • Henry Clay (NR)

  • William Wirt (Anti-Masonic)

  • All candidates elected by national party convention

  • Bank of the United States was central issue


Jackson and the bank war

Jackson and the Bank War

  • Nicholas Biddle

    • Bank supported by Henry Clay and Daniel Webster

  • Andrew Jackson

    • “You are a den of vipers and thieves. I have determined to rout you out, and by the Eternal, I will rout you out!”

    • “The bank, Mr. Van Buren, is trying to kill me, but I will kill it.”

  • Death of the National Bank

    • Jackson vetoed the charter

    • Transferred funds to state banks aka “pet banks”


Election of 1836

Election of 1836

  • Martin van Buren (D)

    • Jackson’s VP

  • Whig Candidates

    • William Henry Harrison (OH)

    • Hugh White (TN)

    • Daniel Webster (MA)

    • Willie Mangum (NC)


Panic of 1837

Panic of 1837

  • National debt paid off in 1835

  • Specie Circular (1836)

    • Purchase of federal lands by gold and silver

  • Panic of 1837

    • Land speculation and crop failures

    • Hard currency led to devalue of paper money and inflation

    • Denial of Bank charter

    • States overextended in infrastructure projects

    • Banks closed; unemployment increased; depression for next five years


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