Composite cylinders from birth to grave
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“ Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave”. Gasworld Conference Wednesday, 4 th December, 2013 Dubai, UAE. Dr Roy (Rohintan) S. Irani,   Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd. London, U.K. Composite Cylinders. Brief History of Composites Role of Regulations and Standards

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Composite cylinders from birth to grave

“Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave”

Gasworld Conference

Wednesday, 4th December, 2013

Dubai, UAE

Dr Roy (Rohintan) S. Irani,  

Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd.

London, U.K.

Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd


Composite cylinders

Composite Cylinders

  • Brief History of Composites

  • Role of Regulations and Standards

  • Specifics for Composite Cylinders

  • Future Developments

Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd


Composite cylinders from birth to grave

Napoleon Bonaparte

Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd


Composite cylinders from birth to grave

  • Brief History of Composites (2)

Following on from Napoleon….almost a century later:

In 1919 a 6.9 MPa, 150 mm diameter cylinder was developed:-

  • This was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel wire to prevent sidewall rupture,

    &

  • The end caps were longitudinally reinforced with high-tensile rods.

Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd


Composite cylinders from birth to grave

Steel wire windings

Thin steel plate cylinder

  • Brief History of Composites (3)

  • There next followed a spate of wire-wound designs regrettably yet again for military applications.

  • During World War II, they were used by airmen as part of their breathing apparatus.

  • Such is their success that they are still used for this military application in what is considered to be a conservative field.

Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd


Composite cylinders from birth to grave

  • Brief History of Composites (4)

  • Following a number of years of research and development within NASA, finally commercial applications with hoop-wound composite cylinders came into being in 1972.

  • Originally these were with an aluminium alloy liner and glass fibre.

  • There then flowed a multitude of developments, which included a variety of liners and fibre combinations.

Here we have an example of a seamless steel liner with an Aramid fibre reinforced composite, known as a Type 2 cylinder.

Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd


Composite cylinders from birth to grave

  • A Brief History of Composites (5)

Glass fibre overwrap for protecting the carbon composite

Carbon fibre

composite

Seamless steel or aluminium

alloy liner

Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd


Composite cylinders from birth to grave

  • Brief History of Composites (6)

Note protective layer of paint, on metallic liner under the composite.

Computer controlled wrapping of a Type 3 cylinder with a carbon fibre composite.

Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd


Composite cylinders from birth to grave

  • A Brief History of Composites (7)

Newsflash!!!

Technological breakthrough!!

Year 2000!!!

Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd


Composite cylinders from birth to grave

Glass fibre composite overlay, over a polymer liner

Metallic boss

  • Brief History of Composites (8)

Critical triple point

junction

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Summary of types of composites

Summary of Types of Composites

  • Type 1: Monolithic cylinders…no composite

  • Type 2: Hoop wrapped composite gas cylinders

  • Type 3: Fully wrapped composite gas cylinders with load-sharing metal liners

  • Type 4: Fully wrapped composite gas cylinders with non-load-sharing metallic or non-metallic liners

  • Type 5: Linerless cylinders…only composite

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Composite cylinders from birth to grave

Some applications for composites

Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd


Composite cylinders from birth to grave

Stay awake….watch this space!

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B role of regulations and standards

B. Role of Regulations and Standards

  • Regulations are Mandatoryand must be followed

  • Regulations are essential ‘Safety Requirements’against which the law will be applied

    BUT

  • Regulations are very concise and so often they rely on the application of good Standardswhich provide the DETAILS.

Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd


Composite cylinders from birth to grave

Principal Regulations covering Pressurised Containers e.g.in Europe

  • ADR - Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road

  • RID - Transport of Dangerous Goods by Rail

  • ADN - Transport of Dangerous Goods by Inland Waterways

  • TPED - Transportable Pressure Equipment Directive

  • PED - Pressure Equipment Directive

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Composite cylinders from birth to grave

  • Monolithic (seamless) cylinders are manufactured using a

    Design Formula e.g. Lamé von-Mises.

BUT

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Safety first

Safety First!

Stored Energy:

There is a huge amount of energy stored in a compressed gas cylinder.

E.g. In a 200 bar 50 litre cylinder i.e. 10,000 bar litres:-

  • We have energy equivalent to 0.4 kgs of TNT

    Or

  • The pressure wave alone can kill a person 15 metres away

    Or

  • Enough energy to raise a small car about 30 metres into the air

    THEREFORE:

    In a ISO(CD) 17519 receptacle i.e. the Titan, whose scope is for a

    10,000 litre x 1000 bar WP vessel the stored energy is 10 million

    bar litres i.e. equivalent to 4 tons of TNT….much safety needs to

    built into the design.

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Composite cylinders from birth to grave

Explosion inside a cellar

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Composite cylinders from birth to grave

Explosion of an Oxygen Cylinder Inside a Cabin

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Composite cylinders from birth to grave

Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd


Composite cylinders from birth to grave

C. Specifics for Composite Cylinders (1)

A large suite of tests developed …..COSTLY!!

  • Cyclic testing (fatigue)

    Complete composite cylinder

  • Burst testing

    Liner only

  • Mechanical testing (tensile, impact, hardness, bend)

  • Flaw tolerance (to simulate damage in service)

  • Drop tests

  • Environmental test (up to 2000 hours in some cases!)

  • Bonfire (subjective!!)

  • Penetration (Gunfire) (really needed in 21st Century?)

  • Permeation (Type 4)

  • High temp creep

  • Accelerated stress rupture

  • Extreme temp pressure cycling

  • Resin shear strength

  • Natural gas cycling

  • Etc.?

Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd


Composite cylinders from birth to grave

Specifics for Composite Cylinders (2)

Despite such an exhaustive and expensive TEST PROGRAMME,

There is still little confidence that a SAFE cylinder is being produced in the minds of COMPETENT AUTHORITIES who are “committed” to achieving a safe design.

Are these sufficient and appropriate tests for SAFETY???

Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd


Composite cylinders from birth to grave

Specifics for Composite Cylinders (3)

NET RESULT:

The total life of a composite cylinder is limited

e.g. in most cases to just 15 YEARS.

But watch this space!

This then results in a double blow for the

user!!

Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd


Composite cylinders from birth to grave

New cylinder costs e.g. Type 3, 300 bar WP and 100 litre

€2000

€ 130/annum

c.f. Type 1, 300 bar WP and 100 litre

€240

€6/annum

BUT

Type 1: Technical efficiency# 0.9kg/L

Type 3: Technical efficiency# 0.3kg/L

# Unit weight of cylinder/volume

Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd


Composite cylinders from birth to grave

  • Lack of confidence in performance is also reflected in the use aspects of composites e.g.

  • P. I. & T. ……… EN ISO 11623 (2002)

  • Lacks any real test for degradation of composites

  • Despite a revision in progress after nearly a decade, very

    little innovative progress for vast majority of composites

  • Some expensive testing e.g. AE testing being developed for ‘Prestige’ Projects.

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The grave

The Grave!

  • The cylinder shall be made unserviceable by:

  • Removing all labels and identification marks,

  • Removal of the valve and other accessories for reuse or recovery,

  • Either crushing the cylinder as flat as possible, or cutting irregular holes in the neck and base.

  • In addition see the guidance in EN ISO 11623 – “Transportable gas cylinders - Periodic inspection and testing of composite gas cylinders”.

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The grave 2

The Grave! (2)

  • Where technically and economically feasible, separate materials for recycling/recovery e.g. cut up/separate different materials by shredding or crushing.

  • Depending on the metal content and the acceptance criteria for the metallic waste on the waste site licence it may be possible to directly recycle the cylinder with metal wastes (without separation of materials).

  • If neither of above methods is technically or economically feasible then the cylinders should be segregated and sent to a suitable landfill.

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Composite cylinders from birth to grave

D. Future developments

  • Develop pragmatic, realistic manufacturing tests and not those which

    ‘might be useful’ e.g. delete the ‘Gunfire’/‘Penetration’ test.

  • Provide hard data to Competent Authorities and not ‘hearsay’

    e.g. stress rupture characteristics of various types of fibres.

  • More objectivity e.g. a more reproducible bonfire test than the current one.

  • Minimise permeation of gas (especially flammable ones) from Type 4 cylinders.

  • Develop an affordable test for evaluating degradation of the composite.

  • Undertake a risk analysis with due regard to the local population.

  • All of the above factors 1) -> 6) will help composites to achieve a non-limited life.

    Thus ensuring that composites compete COMMERCIALLY on a more equal footing

    with Type 1 cylinders, than they do today.

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Composite cylinders from birth to grave

Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd


Composite cylinders from birth to grave

Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd


Something to think about enter the titan

Something to think about….Enter the “Titan”

4 x composite tubes in a 40’ ISO container

= 1 module

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Composite cylinders from birth to grave

A “Titan” on the move

Around 300 modules are now in-use worldwide

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Composite cylinders from birth to grave

Exacting “Bonfire” Tests

Critical “Rollover”. Tubes

tested after accident using AE

and found to be perfectly safe

for further service.

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Composite cylinders from birth to grave

Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd


Composite cylinders from birth to grave

Typical leakage rate from a plastic lined

Type 4 due to permeation

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Composite cylinders from birth to grave

Permeation rates permitted by various specifications

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Composite cylinders from birth to grave

Standardisation

Is

A

Living

Process.

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Composite cylinders from birth to grave

Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd


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