Searching for Blue Planets Orbiting Red Dwarfs
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Searching for Blue Planets Orbiting Red Dwarfs. Andreas Quirrenbach and the CARMENES Consortium. CARMENES – the Acronym. C alar A lto High- R esolution Search for M Dwarfs with E xo-Earths With N ear-Infrared and Optical E chelle S pectrographs.

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Andreas Quirrenbach and the CARMENES Consortium

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Andreas quirrenbach and the carmenes consortium

Searching for Blue Planets Orbiting Red Dwarfs

Andreas Quirrenbach

and the CARMENES Consortium


Carmenes the acronym

CARMENES – the Acronym

  • Calar Alto

  • High-Resolution Search for

  • M Dwarfs with

  • Exo-Earths

  • With Near-Infrared and Optical

  • Echelle Spectrographs


The 3 5m telescope on calar alto southern spain

The 3.5m Telescope on Calar Alto (Southern Spain)


The carmenes consortium

The CARMENES Consortium

  • LandessternwarteKönigstuhl, U Heidelberg, Germany

  • InsitutfürAstrophysik, U Göttingen, Germany

  • MPI fürAstronomie, Heidelberg, Germany

  • ThüringerLandessternwarte, Tautenburg, Germany

  • Hamburger Sternwarte, U Hamburg, Germany

  • Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Granada, Spain

  • Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain

  • Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, Barcelona, Spain

  • Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Tenerife, Spain

  • Centro de Astrobiología, Madrid, Spain

  • Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán


Why m dwarfs

Why M Dwarfs?

  • M dwarfs are very abundant (almost 2/3 of all stars) and thus nearby

    • Excellent targets for follow up

  • M dwarfs are small (< 0.5 M) and faint  “habitable zone” is close to star  relatively large signal  good chance to find Earth-like planets

  • Currently no RV instrument optimized for M stars exists


Goals and plan for carmenes

Goals and Plan for CARMENES

  • Search for Earth-like “habitable” planets around low-mass stars (M-stars)

    • Number and formation mechanisms

    • Properties and “habitability”  follow-up

  • Radial velocity survey of 300 M stars

    • Simultaneously in visible light and near-IR

  • At least 50 data points per star

    • 600 nights needed

    • Guaranteed in contract with observatory


Andreas quirrenbach and the carmenes consortium

A “Shortcut”: M-Type Dwarfs

PHZ (0.4 M) = 25 d

PHZ (0.3 M) = 18 d

PHZ (0.2 M) = 12 d


Andreas quirrenbach and the carmenes consortium

near-IRefficiency peak

If possible,you want to observe here!

“classical” visible light RV instruments

The SED of M-Type Stars

8


Andreas quirrenbach and the carmenes consortium

t

r

t

Let’s Talk About i

j

e

UVES (visual)

NIRSPEC (nIR)

Martin et al. 2006

RV curve of the active M9 dwarf LP-944 20


Andreas quirrenbach and the carmenes consortium

Stellar sample

  • S1: 100 stars with M < 0.25 M (SpType M4 and later)

  • S2: 100 stars with 0.30 > M > 0.25 M (SpType M3-M4)

  • S3: 100 stars with 0.60 > M > 0.30 M (SpType M0-M2; bright)

<dS1+S2+S3> = 13 pc


Andreas quirrenbach and the carmenes consortium

Detectability Simulations


Guiding principles for instrument

Guiding Principles for Instrument

  • Single-purpose instrument

    • Design driven by survey requirements

  • High stability for terrestrial planet detection

    • Thermal and mechanical stability

    • Stable input

    • No moving parts in spectrographs

  • High resolution for slow rotators

  • Large wavelength coverage for discrimination against intrinsic variability

  • High efficiency for faint stars


Instrument overview

Instrument Overview


Properties of spectrographs

Properties of Spectrographs

  • Optical spectrograph

    • 0.53 … 1.05 μm, R = 82,000

    • Precision ~1 m/s

    • Vacuum tank, stable temperature

    • 4k x 4k deep depletion CCD detector

  • Near-Infrared spectrograph

    • 0.95 … 1.7 μm, R = 82,000

    • Vacuum tank, cooled to 140K, stabilized

    • Precision goal 1 m/s

    • Two 2k x 2k Hawaii 2.5 µm detectors


Spectrograph and vacuum tank layout

Spectrograph and Vacuum Tank Layout


Stellar spectrum with calibration lines

Stellar Spectrum with Calibration Lines

Relative Shift:

1/1000 Pixel


Tests of octagonal fibers

Tests of Octagonal Fibers

Input

Near Field

Far Field


Conclusions what we ll get

Conclusions: What we’ll get

  • Radial velocity curves of 300 M stars

    • Precision good for terrestrial planets

    • Orbits and multiplicity

    • Very nearby stars (typically 13 pc)

    • A few transiting planets (  follow-up)

  • Detailed information on target stars

    • R = 82,000 spectra from 0.53 to 1.7μm

    • Key activity indicators (Hα, Ca IR triplet)

    • Line variability and RV jitter

  • Excellent instrument for transit follow-up


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