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COMPARISON/CONTRAST. Definitions. *To compare is to show similarities (likenesses). *To contrast is to show differences. COMPARISON/CONTRAST Two Techniques. Strategies for organizing information Establish meaningful similarities/differences Subjects in the same class

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COMPARISON/CONTRAST

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Comparison contrast

COMPARISON/CONTRAST

Definitions

*To compare is to show similarities (likenesses).

*To contrast is to show differences.


Comparison contrast two techniques

COMPARISON/CONTRASTTwo Techniques

  • Strategies for organizing information

  • Establish meaningful similarities/differences

  • Subjects in the same class

  • Helps us make informed decisions based on facts

  • Comparison/contrast is used for different topics and purposes.

  • Comparison/contrast may be separate or combined.


Comparison contrast title

COMPARISON/CONTRASTTitle

Unfortunately, the title will not be clever

but routine. Possible titles for a

comparison/contrast essay about Grant

and Lee are the following:

Grant vs. Lee

Grant and Lee

Two Outstanding Generals


Comparison contrast part by part or point by point or alternating

COMPARISON/CONTRASTPart-By-Part or Point-by-Point or Alternating

Paragraph 1 (introduction)—lists (series

using commas) the two subjects that are being

contrasted in 3 areas.

Note: A transitional word or phrase must be

used, such as On the other hand, conversely, in

contrast … to show the shift from the first

subject to the second.


Comparison contrast sample introduction

COMPARISON/CONTRAST SAMPLE INTRODUCTION

Even though Grant and Lee were two

distinguished generals in the Civil War

in 1865, (one similarity) they were

significantly different in terms of their

background, perceptions of leadership,

and the sense of loyalty to their own

region. (three differences)


Comparison contrast application of part by part method

COMPARISON/CONTRASTApplication of Part-by-Part Method

Paragraph 2: Discusses subjects 1

(Grant) and 2 (Lee) in terms of the first

difference (background), giving facts

and using transitions.


Comparison contrast sample paragraph 2

COMPARISON/CONTRASTSample Paragraph 2

Grant was a middle-class man from humble beginnings in

the mountains. He was tough, self-reliant, and independent,

believing that he alone was responsible for his fate. Only his

skills, efforts, and perseverance would determine if he would be

successful. Because he was dissatisfied with the status quo, he

believed in democracy and competition. In contrast,

(transitional phrase), Lee was an aristocrat from a family of

landowners. He believed there should be an inequality in the

social structure, and that society should be tied to the land as

the chief source of wealth. Since Lee was satisfied with the

status quo, he feared change.


Comparison contrast application of part by part method1

COMPARISON/CONTRASTApplication of Part-by-Part Method

Paragraph 3: Discusses subject 1

(Grant) and subject 2 (Lee) in terms of

the second difference (leadership),

giving facts and using transitions.


Comparison contrast application of part by part method sample paragraph 3

COMPARISON/CONTRASTApplication of Part-by-Part MethodSample Paragraph 3

Grant believed any man could become a

leader, provided he had the ability, skills, and was

able to assume the position. He wanted only to

be able to improve himself and to prove what he

could accomplish. Nevertheless (transition), Lee

thought otherwise; he believed that only wealthy

landowners could be leaders because they

had a stake in their community. As a leader, Lee

was accountable to those men in his region

because they looked to him as a role model for

higher values.


Comparison contrast

COMPARISON/CONTRAST

Application of Part-by-Part Method

Paragraph 4: discusses subject 1 (Grant) and 2 (Lee) in terms of the third difference (loyalty to

their region), giving facts and using transitions.


Comparison contrast application of part by part method sample paragraph 4

COMPARISON/CONTRASTApplication of Part-by-Part MethodSample Paragraph 4

Grant had no sense of loyalty to his region.

As far as he was concerned, every many had

an equal chance to show how far he could

rise. He believed in competition. Privileges

had to be earned, not given. On theother

hand (transitional phrase), Lee was tied to his

region because of his position, and he would

fight to the limit to defend it because it was

what gave his life meaning.


Comparison contrast application of part by part method2

COMPARISON/CONTRASTApplication of Part-by-Part Method

Paragraph 5 (Conclusion): states

that one man is superior to the other, or

that both men are equal.


Comparison contrast sample conclusion

COMPARISON/CONTRAST SAMPLE CONCLUSION

Despite the fact that both Grant and Lee

were rivals on the battlefield and Lee lost the

war, both men exemplified perseverance,

courage, and patience when they finally

agreed to negotiate the terms for peace in

1865 at Appomattox Court House after many

lives had been lost in the Civil War.


Comparison contrast methodology of whole by whole method

COMPARISON/CONTRASTMethodology of Whole-by-Whole Method

  • Topic: 3 differences and one similarity between Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E.

  • Lee

  • Paragraph 1: Establishes two subjects (Grant and Lee) are being compared and

  • contrasted. This is the introduction, which lists one similarity and 3 differences.

  • Note: This essay is based on the story “Grant and Lee” by Bruce Catton.

  • Paragraph 2: Grant (name of first subject.) Subject 1 is discussed in terms of the

  • following:

  • Background

  • Perceptions of leadership (who was best qualified to lead)

  • Sense of allegiance to his region


Comparison contrast methodology of whole by whole divided or subject by subject method

COMPARISON/CONTRASTMethodology of Whole-by-Whole, Divided, or Subject-by-Subject method

Paragraph 3:Lee (name of second subject).

Subject 2 is discussed in terms of the following:

  • Background

  • Sense of allegiance to his region

  • Perceptions of leadership (who was best qualified to lead?)

    Paragraph 4: (Conclusion) states that one man

    issuperior to the other, or that both are equal.


Comparison contrast application of part by part point by point or alternating method

COMPARISON/CONTRASTApplication of Part-by-Part, Point-by-Point, or Alternating Method

Paragraph 1: Establishes that two subjects (Grant and

Lee) are being compared and contrasted. This is the

introduction, which lists one similarity and three

differences. Note: This is based on the story, Grant and

Lee by Bruce Catton and is identical to the whole-by-whole

method. (Introduction)

Paragraph 2: Discusses Grant and Lee in terms of their

background in the same paragraph with supporting facts.

Note: A transitional word, such as On the other hand,

conversely, in contrast …) must be used in the first part of

the paragraph to show that the writer is shifting from Grant

to Lee.


Comparison contrast application of part by part method3

COMPARISON/CONTRASTApplication of Part-by-Part Method

Paragraph 3: Discusses Grant and Lee in terms of their

perceptions of leadership with supporting facts.

Note: You must use a transitional word to show the shift

from Grant to Lee.

Paragraph 4: Discusses Grant and Lee’s sense of loyalty

to his region with supporting facts. Note: You must use a

transitional word to show the shift from Grant to Lee.


Comparison contrast application of part by part method4

COMPARISON/CONTRASTApplication of Part-by-Part Method

Paragraph 5:(Conclusion) states that one

man is superior to the other, or that both men

are equal.


Comparison contrast sample conclusion1

COMPARISON/CONTRASTSAMPLE CONCLUSION

Despite the fact that both Grant and Lee were rivals on the battlefield and Lee lost the war, both men exemplified perseverance, courage, and patience when they finally agreed to negotiate the terms for peace at Appomattox Court House in 1865 after many lives had been lost in the Civil War.


Comparison contrast advantages and disadvantages of part by part method

COMPARISON/CONTRAST Advantages and Disadvantages of Part-by-Part Method

  • Better for short essays

  • Differences are easier to spot because they are lined up

  • Can be short, choppy, and disorganized without proper transitions, such as however, on the other hand,conversely …


Comparison contrast application of whole by whole method

COMPARISON/CONTRASTApplication of Whole-by-Whole Method

Paragraph 1 (introduction)—lists one

similarity and three differences between

subject 1 (Grant) and subject 2 (Lee).


Comparison contrast application of whole by whole method sample paragraph 1

Even though Grant and Lee were two

distinguished generals in the Civil War in

1865 (one similarity), they were

significantly different in terms of their

background, perceptions of leadership,

and their sense of loyalty to their own

region. (three differences)

COMPARISON/CONTRASTApplication of Whole-by-Whole MethodSample Paragraph 1


Comparison contrast application of whole by whole method1

COMPARISON/CONTRASTApplication of Whole-by-Whole Method

Paragraph 2 – Discusses Grant in

terms of all three differences

(background, leadership, and loyalty to

the region), giving facts.


Comparison contrast application of whole by whole method sample paragraph 2

COMPARISON/CONTRASTApplication of Whole-by-Whole MethodSample Paragraph 2

In terms of background, Grant was a middle-class man from humble beginnings in the mountains. He was tough, self-reliant, and independent, believing that he alone was responsible for his fate. Only his skills, efforts, and perseverance would determine if he would e successful. Because he was dissatisfied with the status quo, he believed in democracy and competition. Grant also believed any many could become a leader, provided he had the ability, skills, and was able to assume the position. He wanted only to e ale to improve himself and to prove what he could accomplish. Moreover, Grant had no sense of loyalty to his region. As far as he was concerned, every man had an equal chance to show how far he could rise. Privileges had to be earned, not given. Life was competition.


Comparison contrast application of whole by whole method2

COMPARISON/CONTRASTApplication of Whole-by-Whole Method

Paragraph 3 – Discusses Lee in terms

of all three differences (background,

leadership, and loyalty to the region),

giving facts.


Comparison contrast application of whole by whole method sample paragraph 3

COMPARISON/CONTRASTApplication of Whole-by-Whole MethodSample Paragraph 3

In contrast, Lee was an aristocrat from a family of landowners who owned slaves. He believed there should be an inequality in the social structure, and that society should be tied to the land as the chief source of wealth. Since Lee was satisfied with the status quo, he feared change. In his mind, only wealthy landowners could be leaders because they had a stake in their community. As a leader, Lee was accountable to the men in his region because they looked to him as a role model for higher values. Lee was tied to his region because of his position; he had a solemn obligation to these men because of his financial ties to his community, and he would fight to the limit to defend it because it was what gave his life meaning.


Comparison contrast application of whole by whole method3

COMPARISON/CONTRASTApplication of Whole-by-Whole Method

Paragraph 4 (Conclusion): states

that one man is superior to the other, or

that both men are equal.


Comparison contrast sample conclusion2

COMPARISON/CONTRASTSAMPLE CONCLUSION

Despite the fact that both Grant and Lee were rivals on the battlefield and Lee lost the war, both men exemplified perseverance, courage, and patience when they finally agreed to negotiate the terms for peace in 1865 at Appomattox Court House after any lives had been lost in the Civil War.


Comparison contrast advantages and disadvantages of whole by whole method

COMPARISON/CONTRASTAdvantages and Disadvantages of Whole-by-Whole Method

  • Better for longer essays when background information is needed or when the reader wants to display a lot of information at a glance

  • Can be viewed as a separate essay if no transitions are used

  • Takes longer for readers to see the difference, since they are unaligned


Comparison contrast1

COMPARISON/CONTRAST

Determining the Organizational Pattern

  • The writer determines how he/she wishes to organize the material for proper effect.

  • The writer needs to consider the topic, purpose, and how much an audience knows about the subject matter.

    Remember: Your purpose is to inform. As a writer, you must assume your readers have some information about the topic, but they are not “experts.” Finally, you are to mention only one similarity but three differences between the subjects. The focus of this essay is on differences, not similarities!


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