Chapter 1 nutrition basics
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Chapter 1 Nutrition Basics. Nutrition Through the Life Cycle Judith E. Brown. Foods provide energy (calories), nutrients, and other substances needed for growth & health. Calorie—a measure of the amount of energy transferred from food to the body

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Chapter 1 Nutrition Basics

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Chapter 1 nutrition basics

Chapter 1 Nutrition Basics

Nutrition Through the Life Cycle

Judith E. Brown


Chapter 1 nutrition basics

  • Foods provide energy (calories), nutrients, and other substances needed for growth & health.

    • Calorie—a measure of the amount of energy transferred from food to the body

    • Nutrients—chemical substances in food that are used by the body


Essential nutrients

Essential Nutrients

  • Nutrients the body cannot manufacture are “essential” in the diet. We must consume them. They include:

    • Carbohydrates

    • Certain amino acids—”building blocks” of proteins

    • Essential fatty acids: linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid

    • Vitamins & minerals

    • Water


Factors that impact nutrient needs

Age

Body size

Gender

Genetic traits

Growth

Illness

Lifestyle habits

Medications

Pregnancy and lactation

Factors that Impact Nutrient Needs


Dietary intake standards

Dietary Intake Standards

  • Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)

    • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)

    • Adequate Intakes (AIs)

    • Estimated Average Requirements (EARs)

    • Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)


Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

  • Simple carbohydrates

    • Monosaccharides

    • Disaccharides

  • Complex carbohydrates

    • Starches

    • Glycogen

    • Fiber

  • Alcohol sugars


Carbohydrates1

Carbohydrates

  • Recommended intake level

    • 45-65% of calories

    • Added sugar: 25% or less of calories

    • 21-35 g fiber/day for females

    • 30-38 g fiber/day for males

  • Food sources

    • Widely distributed in plant foods

    • Milk is only animal source

    • Refer to Table 1.5


Protein

Protein

  • Amino acids—”building blocks” of proteins

    • Essential—body cannot make; must be provided in diet

    • Nonessential—body can make

  • Protein quality—high-quality proteins provide all essential amino acids

  • Recommended intake

    • 10-35% of calories

  • Food sources (refer to Table 1.6)


Fats lipids

Fats—a subclass of lipids

Fats = solid at room temperature

Oils = liquid at room temperature

Triglycerides— glycerol with 3 fatty acids attached

Fats (Lipids)


Essential fatty acids

Essential Fatty Acids

  • Essential fatty acids

    • Linoleic acid (omega-6)

    • Alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3)

  • Omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio

    • Desirable ratio is 4 or less omega-6 to 1 omega-3

    • Many Americans have a 9 to 1 (or more!) omega-6 to omega-3 intake


Recommended intake of fats

Recommended Intake of Fats

  • Not all fats are created equal

  • “Unhealthful” fats

    • Those that raise LDL-cholesterol

    • Examples: Trans and saturated fats and cholesterol

  • “Healthful” fats

    • Those that raise HDL-cholesterol

    • Examples: Monounsatured, polyunsaturated, linolenic, EPA, and DHA


Vitamins

Vitamins

  • Water-soluble vitamins (see table 1.8)

    • Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, folate, B12, biotin, pantothenic acid, C

  • Fat-soluble vitamins (see table 1.8)

    • A, D, E, K

  • Functions (refer to Table 1.9 )

    • Coenzymes

    • Antioxidants


Water

Water

  • Adults are 60-70% water

  • Recommended daily intakes

    • 12-16 cups for males

    • 11 cups for females

    • 75% from fluids; 25% from foods

  • Dietary sources

    • Best to drink water & nonalcoholic, non-caffeinated beverages

    • Alcohol/caffeine increase water loss through urine


Chapter 1 nutrition basics

  • Poor nutrition can result from both inadequate and excessive levels of nutrient intake.

    • Prolonged inadequate intake results in obvious deficiencies.

    • Overdoses of nutrients (usually by supplements) result in mild to severe alterations in functioning.


Chapter 1 nutrition basics

  • Some groups of people are at higher risk of becoming inadequately nourished than others

    • Pregnant/breastfeeding women, infants, children, people who are ill, frail elderly persons


The life course approach to nutrition and health

The Life-Course Approach to Nutrition and Health

Healthy individuals require the same nutrients throughout life.

Amounts of nutrients vary based on age, growth and development.

Diets may be defined by cultures and religions.


Meeting nutritional needs

Meeting Nutritional Needs

  • Dietary Considerations Based on Ethnicity

  • Dietary Considerations Based on Religion

    • Hindus

    • Buddhists

    • Sikhism

    • Mormons

    • Seventh-Day Adventists

    • Jews

    • Muslims


Nutritional assessment

Nutritional Assessment

  • Community-level assessment

    • Assessing a community’s “state of nutritional health”

    • Uses statistics data, surveys, observations

  • Individual-level assessment

    • Nutrition assessment of individual

      • Clinical/physical assessment

      • Dietary assessment

      • Anthropometric assessment

      • Biochemical assessment data


Individual assessment

Individual Assessment

  • Clinical/physical assessment

    • Inspection for features that may be related to malnutrition

  • Dietary assessment

    • 24-hour dietary recalls and records

    • Dietary history

    • Food frequency questionnaires

    • Resources: instruments and computer software


Individual assessment1

Individual Assessment

  • Anthropometric assessment

    • Measurements of body size and shape

  • Biochemical assessment

    • Nutrient and enzyme levels

    • DNA characteristics

    • Other biological markers


Nationwide priorities for improvements

Nationwide Priorities for Improvements

  • U.S. Nutrition and Health Guidelines

  • Dietary Guidelines for Americans

  • MyPyramid Food Guide

  • Healthy People 2010: Objectives for the Nation

  • The DASH Diet

  • The Mediterranean Diet


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