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DNA RNA Protein Trait Protein Synthesis (Gene Expression) Notes PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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DNA RNA Protein Trait Protein Synthesis (Gene Expression) Notes Proteins (Review) Proteins make up all living materials. Proteins are composed of amino acids – there are 20 different amino acids

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DNA RNA Protein Trait Protein Synthesis (Gene Expression) Notes

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Dna rna protein trait protein synthesis gene expression notes

  • DNA RNA Protein Trait

    Protein Synthesis (Gene Expression) Notes

    Proteins (Review)

  • Proteins make up all living materials


Dna rna protein trait protein synthesis gene expression notes

  • Proteins are composed of amino acids – there are 20different amino acids

  • Different proteins are made by combiningthese 20 amino acids in different combinations


Dna rna protein trait protein synthesis gene expression notes

  • Proteins are manufactured (made) by the ribosomes


Dna rna protein trait protein synthesis gene expression notes

  • Function of proteins:

  • Help fight disease

  • Build new body tissue

  • 3.Enzymes used for digestion and other chemical reactions are proteins

    (Enzymes speed up the rate of a reaction)

  • 4.Component of all cell membranes


Dna rna protein trait protein synthesis gene expression notes

Genes

  • Genes are the instruction manuals for our bodies.

  • They are the directions for building all the proteins that make our body function.

  • Genes are made of DNA.


Dna rna protein trait protein synthesis gene expression notes

  • Gene Expression

  • Not all genes are active or expressed at the same time.

  • Why: Because the cell would produce molecules it did NOT need – waste of energy and raw materials


Dna rna protein trait protein synthesis gene expression notes

  • Gene expression (protein synthesis) is when the product of a gene, or a specific protein is being produced by a cell.

    • some genes are – rarelyexpressed – adrenaline

    • some genes are – constantly expressed – hairgrowth, blood pressure

    • some genes are expressed sometimes and turned off others – estrogen.


Dna rna protein trait protein synthesis gene expression notes

Making a Protein—Transcription

  • First Step:Copying of genetic information from DNA to RNA called Transcription

    Why? DNA has the genetic code for the protein that needs to be made, but proteins are made by the ribosomes—ribosomes are outside the nucleus in the cytoplasm.

    DNA is too large to leave the nucleus (double stranded), but RNA can leave the nucleus (single stranded).


Dna rna protein trait protein synthesis gene expression notes

Nucleus


Dna rna protein trait protein synthesis gene expression notes

  • Part of DNA temporarily unzips and is used as a template to assemble complementary nucleotides into messenger RNA (mRNA).


Dna rna protein trait protein synthesis gene expression notes

Nucleus

mRNA

DNA

DNA

A

U

A

T

U

A

G

C

C


Dna rna protein trait protein synthesis gene expression notes

  • mRNA then goes through the pores of the nucleus with the DNA code and attaches to the ribosome.


Dna rna protein trait protein synthesis gene expression notes

Nucleus

Original DNA

mRNA

Ribosome


Dna rna protein trait protein synthesis gene expression notes

Making a Protein—Translation

  • Second Step:Decoding of mRNA into a protein is called Translation.

  • Transfer RNA (tRNA) carries amino acids from the cytoplasm to the ribosome.


Dna rna protein trait protein synthesis gene expression notes

These amino acids come from the food we eat. Proteins we eat are broken down into individual amino acids and then simply rearranged into new proteins according to the needs and directions of our DNA.


Dna rna protein trait protein synthesis gene expression notes

  • A series of three adjacent bases in an mRNA molecule codes for a specific amino acid—called a codon.

  • A triplet of nucleotides in tRNA that is complementary to the codon in mRNA—called an anticodon.

  • Each tRNA codes for a different amino acid.

mRNA

Amino acid

tRNA

Anticodon


Dna rna protein trait protein synthesis gene expression notes

  • mRNA carrying the DNA instructions and tRNA carrying amino acids meet in the ribosomes.


Dna rna protein trait protein synthesis gene expression notes

  • Amino acids are joined together to make a protein.

Polypeptide = Protein


Dna rna protein trait protein synthesis gene expression notes

Use one of the codon charts on the next page to find the amino acid sequence coded for by the following mRNA strands.

CAC/CCA/UGG/UGA

___________/___________/___________/____________

AUG/AAC/GAC/UAA

  • ___________/___________/___________/____________


Dna rna protein trait protein synthesis gene expression notes

2nd Base

1st Base

3rd Base

  • CAC/CCA/UGG/UGA

  • ___________/___________/___________/____________

Histidine

Proline

Tryptophan

Stop


Dna rna protein trait protein synthesis gene expression notes

  • AUG/AAC/GAC/UAA

  • ___________/___________/___________/____________

Methionine

Asparagine

Aspartic Acid

Stop


Dna rna protein trait protein synthesis gene expression notes

Protein Synthesis


Dna rna protein trait protein synthesis gene expression notes

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