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AWSC Scientific Meeting ANIMAL ETHICS AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION WHERE ARE WE GOING WITH OUR LIVESTOCK? Professor JOHN HODGES. ETHICS NEW TOPIC IN AGRICULTURE. ETHICS NEW TOPIC IN AGRICULTURE ALSO A NEW TOPIC IN WESTERN SOCIETY WHY ?. ETHICS IN PUBLIC DOMAIN European Parliament

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AWSC Scientific Meeting

ANIMAL ETHICS AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

WHERE ARE WE GOING WITH OUR LIVESTOCK?

Professor JOHN HODGES

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ETHICS NEW TOPIC

IN AGRICULTURE

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ETHICS NEW TOPIC

IN AGRICULTURE

ALSO A NEW TOPIC

IN WESTERN SOCIETY

WHY ?

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ETHICS IN PUBLIC DOMAIN

European Parliament

Ethics Summit

EU Reflection Group on Spiritual

and Cultural Dimensions

World Bank

Moral and Spiritual Values

in Development

European Society for Agriculture

and Food Ethics

National Animal Science Societies

Ethic Sessions & Journals

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Ethics
ETHICS

“FEEDING THE WORLD IS A MORAL

NOT AN ECONOMIC ISSUE”

NELSON MANDELA

MAY 2004 TO UN

COMMUNITY: EMPOWERING THE WEAK

TO HELP THEMSELVES

WITHOUT ETHICS COMMUNITY

IS UNSUSTAINABLE

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Agriculture is changing historic role capitalist resource foundation for global community

AGRICULTURE IS CHANGINGHISTORIC ROLECAPITALIST RESOURCE FOUNDATION FOR GLOBAL COMMUNITY ?

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The challenge values
THE CHALLENGE: VALUES

FEED WORLD AND BUILD COMMUNITY

OR

SEE THE CHALLENGE ONLY AS A BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY

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Co operation and compeition
CO-OPERATION AND COMPEITION

IN NATURE AND

ECOSYSTEMS

IN ALL SUCCESSFUL HUMAN SOCIETIES

TODAY: COMPETITION RULES

SOCIAL DARWINISM

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CONTRASTING POSITIONS

ON TREATMENT OF LIVESTOCK

Arise from how we understand the differences of species

Self perception of Homo sapiens

shapes our view of livestock in our new society in which public decisions are based only on economic values

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ANIMALS: TWO BROAD POSITIONS

Ethical protests on animal welfare

Dumb sentient animals unable to

present their own case

Business Management

No discomfort evident

Food, shelter, disease control

Animals experience of life is different

from humans

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Historic revolutions in agriculture
HISTORIC REVOLUTIONS IN AGRICULTURE

Hunting-Gathering (Pre-history)

Neolithic Revolution ( ~12,000+ years ago)

Domestication, Community, Morality

Agro-Industrial Revolution (1700 – 1945)

Flowing from Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment

Intensification Era – Crisis (1945-1990)

Future – bleak unless we find new sustainable ways

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Neolithic revolution agricultural cultural 12 000 years ago
NEOLITHIC REVOLUTIONAgricultural/Cultural ~12,000 years ago

New features of human civilization

Community living

Artifacts from new quality of life

Domestication of plants and animals

Spread from Middle East with livestock

Genetic drift forming diverse cultures

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Homo sapiens in europe
Homo sapiens in Europe

Agriculture arrived with H. sapiens

from Middle East after cultural revolution

No Neanderthal Ancestors

Iceman in Alps

5,300 years ago

Mitochondrial DNA

90% modern European from 7 women

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1 st major shift neolithic revolution agricultural cultural 12 000 years ago
1ST MAJOR SHIFT - NEOLITHIC REVOLUTIONAgricultural/Cultural ~12,000 years ago

New quality of life factors

Community living

Belief in transcendence

Morality

Acceptable social behaviour

Lawmaking

Ethical standards

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MAJOR SOCIAL – CULTURAL SHIFT

IN EUROPEAN SOCIETY

1400- 1700

Renaissance

Reformation

Enlightenment

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EMERGENCE OF INDUSTRY AND

INDUSTRIAL AGRICULTURE

1800 - 2000

Intensification/Scale

Reductionism

Livestock Separated from Human Community

Sustainability

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ETHICS IN FOOD CHAIN

Concerns Fueled by

GENE-TRANSFER TECHNOLOGY

ANIMAL WELFARE

MARRIAGE OF SCIENCE AND BUSINESS

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ETHICS IN FOOD CHAIN

BOOKS BY SCIENTISTS

VOICING CONCERN OVER

NEGATIVE MOTIVES

AND EFFECTS IN THEIIR FIELDS

FAO EXPERT GROUP ON ETHICS

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ETHICS

KNOWING THE DIFFERENCE

BETWEEN GOOD AND EVIL

AND CHOOSING TO DO THE GOOD

SOCRATES

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ETHICS

TWO ESSENTIAL STAGES

DEALING WITH INNOVATION

DUE PROCESS

EXAMINE OPTIONS, IDENTIFY AND EXAMINE IMPACTS AND RISKS FOR STAKEHOLDERS

DECISION-MAKING

TRANSPARENCY WITH WIN-WIN CONSEQUENCES

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ORIGIN OF ETHICS IN EUROPEAN SOCIETY THE WEST

THOUSAND YEARS

OF JUDEO-CHRISTIAN

STANDARDS IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE

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“GOLDEN RULE” HAS BEEN THE NORM

Jesus

TREAT OTHERS AS YOU WISH THEM TO TREAT YOU

By extension to husbandry

of natural resources, environment

agriculture

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ETHICS IN EUROPE

THOUSAND YEARS

OF JUDEO-CHRISTIAN

STANDARDS IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE

NORTH AMERICA

AUSTRALIA - NZ

CULTURAL AND RELIGIOUS COLONIES OF EUROPE

JUDEO-CHRISTIAN STANDARDS

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DO YOUR OWN ETHICS

Smorgasbord Ethics

Serious implications for public

decision-making

Floating, relative morals

may be OK in private

Which standards in public ???

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A MAJOR SHIFT IN NORMS

OF WESTERN SOCIETY

God gone from market place

Morality now seen as private

Dilemma:

Do nothing

Call for voluntary ethical standards

Legislate ethically based standards

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ETHICS IN LIVESTOCK

PUBLIC DILEMMA OVER

TREATMENT OF LIVESTOCK

ANIMAL RIGHTS

ANIMAL WELFARE

FOOD SAFETY

HEALTH

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SPECIES: TWO POSITIONS

Identification with sentient species

Restraint needed in treatment of livestock

Dumb animals unable to express pain

(Animal rights ? )

No identification

H. sapiens is different

Leads to two positions: Exploitation or Stewardship

(Animal welfare ?)

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SPECIES ARGUMENT

Identification position

Species have intrinsic rights

Encouraged by new freedoms for

minorities and subsets

Slaves

Women

Minority Ethnic Groups

Sexual Preferences

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SPECIES: NO IDENTIFICATION

Humans are humans: animals are animals

Humans are superior species

Dumb and incapacitated humans are cared for

This position brings ethics, not rights, into the equation

TWO PATHS

No ethics leads to continued intensification

With ethics – how to define public boundaries in

society where ethics are now private

WHERE TO DRAW THE LINE ?

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ETHICS IN LIVESTOCK

PUBLIC DILEMMA

CASE OF MOLECULAR GENETICS

WHERE TO DRAW THE LINE ?

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TRADITIONAL LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION CHANGES IN LAST 50 YEARS

ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY

Higher throughput

in time and space

Return on capital

Reduced labour

WHERE TO DRAW THE LINE ?

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TRADITIONAL LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION CHANGES IN LAST 50 YEARS

BIOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY:

Prolificacy

Mortality

Genetic gain

Nutrition costs

Conversion rate

Ratio edible to inedible

Uniformity

Time conception to market

WHERE TO DRAW THE LINE ?

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Molecular biology challenges the way we view animals

Human Genome Project shows

major physical matching

If molecular boundaries of humans

and animals are minimal….

Why is Homo sapiens different?

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Molecular biology gives

unprecedented power to the human species over animals

The current batch of techniques

will lead to an endless vista of

options for engineering animals

WHAT ETHICS SHALL WE USE ?

WHERE TO DRAW THE LINE ?

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Molecular biology challenges the way we view ourselves

WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE

HUMAN ?

Takes us back to our moral origin and nature

Civilization, community, law,

Acceptable and unacceptable behaviour,

Sanctions

Accountability, transparency,

Sustainability

Instinct versus moral freedom to choose

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Unprecedented power over all other species

What will happen to Homo sapiens

as we behave like the

Top Animal Species ?

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Future scenario of intensive

livestock production

Current techniques lead to vista of

options for engineering animals

Remove unnecessary parts

Legs, feathers, beaks, eyes, ears,

Pigs with genes for beef muscle

Meat sheep with no wool

Quail without legs laying chicken eggs

Thinned animals skin

WHAT ETHICS SHALL WE USE ?

WHERE TO DRAW THE LINE ?

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Feed line to supply nutrient

with hormones, enzymes etc

Blood line from specialist animals

providing perfect time for market

Fish genes removing need for heating

Maintenance costs reduced

Reproduction redesigned

Animals gender neutral

Duplicate genes from old male or female lines

Embryos grown in artificial uterus

WHAT ETHICS SHALL WE USE ?

WHERE TO DRAW THE LINE ?

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BASIC ANIMAL FRAMEWORK

No species – template

Head, brain, for neural control

no eyes, ears mouth

No rumen, simple digestive tract

Stem cells added for products

Meat harvested

WHAT ETHICS SHALL WE USE ?

WHERE TO DRAW THE LINE ?

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FANTASY ?

Simply - extension of reductionist values

without ethical limit

WHAT ETHICS SHALL WE USE ?

Utilitarian – Shareholder profit

WHERE TO DRAW THE LINE ?

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WHO WILL DECIDE THE ETHICS

OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION ?

AT WHAT POINT SHALL WE STOP ?

OR BE STOPPED ?

BY WHOM ? AND WHEN ?

WHERE TO DRAW THE LINE ?

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WITHOUT ETHICS WE RETURN

TO THE BARBARIC

LIFE OF NATURE

RED IN TOOTH

AND CLAW

WE CEASE BEING HUMAN AND ARE MERELY TOP SPECIES

WHERE TO DRAW THE LINE ?

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THEN WE INEVITABLY TURN

UPON OTHER DEFENCELESS

AND UNPRODUCTIVE INDIVIDUALS WITHIN OUR OWN SPECIES

EUTHANASIA

Unproductive people

or

Uncooperative people

Eugenics & Reproductive control

WHERE TO DRAW THE LINE ?

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ANCIENT AND RELIGIOUS WISEMEN

KNOW THAT ETHICS DETERMINES THE

NATURE OF HUMAN COMMUNITIES

ETHICS – KNOWING GOOD AND EVIL

AND CHOOSING GOOD

NO ETHICS – NO COMMUNITY

ETHICS DEFINES HUMANITY

WHERE TO DRAW THE LINE ?

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BOUNDARY SEPARATING MANKIND

FROM OTHER SPECIES

CARRIES RESPONSIBILITIES

FOR COMMUNITY OF ALL OF LIFE

AWARENESS OF TRANSCENDENT

IS BASIS OF ETHICS AND COMMUNITY

AND MAKES US HUMAN

WHERE TO DRAW THE LINE ?

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OUR DECISION ABOUT LIVESTOCK

WILL DEFINE OUR OWN FUTURE

&

OUR COMMUNITIES AND OUR IDENTITY AS HUMANS

AWARENESS OF TRANSCENDENT

IS BASIS OF ETHICS AND COMMUNITY

AND MAKES US HUMAN

WHERE TO DRAW THE LINE ?

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“It is dangerous to show man too clearly

how much he resembles the beast

without at the same time

showing him his greatness

It is also dangerous to allow him too clear

a vision of his greatness without his baseness.

It is even more dangerous to leave

him in ignorance of both.

But it is very profitable to show him both”.

Blaise Pascal, 1623-62.

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