Science energy and motion
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SCIENCE ENERGY and MOTION. All the lights in your house need energy. So do the refrigerator and washing machine and computer. What else needs energy?. What do you and a car have in common? You both need energy! Gasoline is the car’s source of energy.

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SCIENCE ENERGY and MOTION

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Science energy and motion

SCIENCEENERGY and MOTION


Science energy and motion

All the lights in your house need energy. So do the refrigerator and washing machine and computer.

What else needs energy?


Science energy and motion

What do you and a car have in common?

You both need energy!

Gasoline is the car’s source of energy.

Food is your form of energy. Healthy foods give your body the energy it needs.


Science energy and motion

Match up each item to its source of energy.


Science energy and motion

ENERGY is the ABILITY to CAUSE CHANGE in MATTER.

EVERYTHING THAT MOVES HAS ENERGY!


Science energy and motion

These kids need energy to run.

They get their energy from eating healthy foods.


Science energy and motion

When a roller coaster car climbs

a hill, it seems to stop at the top

for just a moment.

Then it speeds down to the bottom.


Science energy and motion

Something in motion, like a girl on a pogo stick, has

KINETIC ENERGY.

KINETIC ENERGY is ENERGY in MOTION.


Science energy and motion

The roller coaster hovering at the top of a hill has

POTENTIAL ENERGY.

POTENTIAL ENERGY is the energy something has because of its position or condition.


Science energy and motion

MECHANICAL ENERGY

is the total

POTENTIAL ENERGY

+

KINETIC ENERGY

of an object.


Science energy and motion

The girl pushes the

pogo stick spring down.

The spring has

POTENTIAL ENERGY.

When the spring spreads

out, the pogo stick

goes up and now has

KINETIC ENERGY.


Science energy and motion

As a roller coaster

climbs to the top of a

hill, it gains POTENTIAL ENERGY.

The higher the coaster

climbs, the more

POTENTIAL ENERGY

the cars have.


Science energy and motion

As the coaster comes

down the hill, the

POTENTIAL ENERGY

decreases because

of the changes in

KINETIC ENERGY.


Science energy and motion

MECHANICAL ENERGY =

POTENTIAL ENERGY + KINETIC ENERGY


Science energy and motion

FLASH and BOOM

You see lightning flash across the

sky. Then you hear a boom that

is so loud, it makes your heart pound.

Lightning and Thunder are two

Forms of Energy.


Science energy and motion

Lightning can be hotter than the

surface of the sun. It makes the

air around it rapidly expand. This

causes the BOOM of thunder.


Science energy and motion

Do the Math

How far away was that lightning strike?

As soon as you see a flash of lightning,

count the seconds until you hear

thunder. Then divide the number of

seconds by 5. This gives you an

approximate distance in miles.


Science energy and motion

LIGHT ENERGY

is produced and used in

different ways.

Light is a form of energy

that can travel through

space.

Plants use light from the

sun to make food.

PHOTOSYNTHESIS


Science energy and motion

That same LIGHT ENERGY

from the sun allows us to see.

Another source of LIGHT ENERGY

is electricity. If we couldn’t use

electricity to produce

LIGHT ENERGY it would be difficult

to work or play after dark.


Science energy and motion

Another form of energy is

SOUND ENERGY.

Sound is made when something

moves back and forth. This motion

is called

VIBRATION.


Science energy and motion

Sounds can be described in

different ways.

PITCH

describes how high or low

a sound is.

LOUD sounds have more energy

than quiet sounds.


Science energy and motion

ENERGY is all around us.

You could not do without energy for even one day.

CHEMICAL ENERGY

is energy that is released by a

chemical change.

ELECTRICAL ENERGY

is energy that comes from electric

current.


Science energy and motion

CHEMICAL ENERGY

from the food we eat gives us the energy we need to grow and move.

Most cars run on gasoline.

Gasoline is a source of

chemical energy.

Fire releases chemical energy that

provides heat and cooks our food.


Science energy and motion

ELECTRICAL ENERGY

is energy that comes from electric

current.

Anything plugged into a wall outlet

uses electrical energy.

Electricity is generated using the chemical

energy released during the burning of

fossil fuels.

The sun, wind, and water can also

generate electricity.


Science energy and motion

Solar Power Water Power


Science energy and motion

ENERGY CAN CHANGE FORM

Electrical energy changes to light energy

when you turn on a light switch.

You feel heat energy given off by

many light bulbs.

Chemical energy in gasoline changes

to mechanical energy when a driver

presses the gas pedal.


Science energy and motion

Chemical energy changes into light

energy in a glow stick.

Glow sticks have a glass tube

inside that has chemicals inside.

When you bend the glow stick, the

tube breaks. The chemicals mix

together and when they mix, light

energy is given off.


Science energy and motion

Radio Waves are a form of energy.

A remote control sends radio waves

to a remote-controlled car.

The radio waves change to electrical

energy to tell the motor

what to do:

start – stop – go faster.

The car also has batteries to change

chemical energy to electrical energy

to move the car.


Science energy and motion

SUMMARY

Energy is the ability to cause change in matter.

Everything that moves has energy.

Kinetic energy is energy of motion.

Potential energy is the energy something

has because of its position.

Mechanical energy is the sum of kinetic energy

and potential energy.

Light energy allows plants to make food and

helps us see and stay warm.

Sound energy is caused by vibrations.

Energy can change from one form to another.


Science energy and motion

WATER

ENERGY

A dam can be

used to

change the

kinetic energy

of falling water

into electrical

energy.


Science energy and motion

Energy made using falling water is known as

HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY.

People have always used water’s energy to move things. Before boats had engines, ferries and rafts used the motion of rivers to carry people and goods from place to place.


Science energy and motion

Mills powered by water have been used for hundreds of years. Water flows over the wheel to turn it. The wheel turns an axle that turns a mill wheel or another device.


Science energy and motion

  • A river brings water to a dam. The dam holds the water behind it in an artificial lake called a reservoir.

  • Water is released through the dam. The water spins the blades of giant turbines.

  • Each turbine is connected to a generator. The turbine makes the generator spin to produce electricity.

    4. The water then flows back into the river.


Science energy and motion

WIND ENERGY

Wind mills, like water mills,

have been used for hundreds of

years. They move because of

the wind.

Wind energy is energy produced

by moving air.


Science energy and motion

Windmills used to be used to

grind grain.

Today, windmills are used to

produce electricity.

The wind’s kinetic energy causes the

turbine’s blades to move.

The generator changes this energy

of motion into electrical energy.


Science energy and motion

One wind turbine can make enough

electrical energy to power our

entire school.

Wind and Water are clean

energy sources.

They do not hurt our environment

and they are both renewable

resources.


Science energy and motion

Wind energy is

used by kites,

gliders and birds

as they fly.

Sailors capture

wind energy to

sail the seas.


Science energy and motion

Renewable Energy is our Future

One day we will run out of fossil

fuels like coal, petroleum, and

natural gas.

If we want to continue using

electricity, we must find ways to

use other sources of energy.


Science energy and motion

Fossil fuels are NONRENEWABLE.

When they are gone, they’re gone.

Water and wind are renewable

sources of energy.

Biofuels, which are made from living

things, are renewable resources

too.


Science energy and motion

Solar energy is a renewable

source of energy.

Windmills and water energy

are also renewable.


Science energy and motion

Another renewable energy source is HYDROGEN.

This car has a tank filled with hydrogen

instead of gasoline.

The hydrogen goes to a fuel cell, where the

Hydrogen mixes with oxygen to produce electricity.


Science energy and motion

SUMMARY

Wind and water are two important

sources of renewable energy. People

have long used water’s energy to move

people and things. Windmills were often

used to grind grain.

Today, we use wind energy and water

energy to drive generators.

The generators change mechanical

energy into electrical energy.


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