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Week 11 Lecture 2. LEACH. Outline . Preface. Problem Definition. LEACH Assumptions. LEACH Protocol Architecture. Determining Cluster Head nodes. Set-up phase. Steady State phase. LEACH Protocol Variations (LEACH-C, LEACH-F). Simulations of LEACH. Conclusion. References.

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LEACH

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Leach

Week 11 Lecture 2

LEACH

LEACH


Outline

Outline

  • Preface.

  • Problem Definition.

  • LEACH Assumptions.

  • LEACH Protocol Architecture.

    • Determining Cluster Head nodes.

    • Set-up phase.

    • Steady State phase.

    • LEACH Protocol Variations (LEACH-C, LEACH-F).

  • Simulations of LEACH.

  • Conclusion.

  • References.

LEACH


Basic fundamentals of wireless sensor network

Basic fundamentals of Wireless Sensor Network

  • Small

  • Cheap

  • Efficient of Energy

LEACH


Requirement design of wireless sensor network

Requirement Design of Wireless Sensor Network

From book Protocol and Architecture for Wireless Sensor Network

  • Type of Service

  • Quality of Service

  • Fault Tolerant

  • Life Time

  • Scalability

  • Range of Density

  • Programability

  • Maintainability

LEACH


Problem definition in wsn

Problem Definition in WSN

Ease of Deployment

Sensor Network may contain hundreds untill thousands node

System Life Time

Long life time as possible.

Latency

Data distribution is time sensitive

Quality

Reduce same redundant data between nodes

LEACH


Assumption

Assumption

Radio characteristics

  • Same energy dissipation in transmit and receive circuitry

  • r2 Energy loss due to channel transmission

  • Radio channel is symmetric

    Sensor Characteristics

  • Sensors are sensing environments at fixed rate

  • Sensors communicate among each other and to the base station

  • All sensors are homogenous and have energy-constraint

    Base Station

  • Base station is fixed

  • Base station is located far from sensors

LEACH


Leach low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy

LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy)

  • Self-Organizing, adaptive clustering protocol.

  • Even distribution of energy load among the sensors.

  • Dynamic cluster formation.

  • Randomized rotation of cluster heads after each round.

  • Cluster-heads communicate data with the base station.

  • Application-specific data processing, such as data aggregation.

LEACH


Leach architecture

LEACH – Architecture

LEACH


Phase life of leach protocol

Phase Life of Leach Protocol

Each Leach operation round consists of

  • Set-up phase (clusters are organized).

    • Cluster Head Selection.

    • Cluster Formation.

  • Steady state Phase (data transmission).

Timeline showing LEACH operation [6]

LEACH


Setup phase

Setup phase

  • At the beginning of each round, each nodeadvertises it probability, (depending upon its current energy level) to be the Cluster Head, to all other nodes.

    • Nodes (k for each round) with higher probabilities are chosen as the Cluster Heads.

  • Cluster Heads broadcasts an advertisement message (ADV) using CSMA MAC protocol.

    • Based on the received signal strength, each non-Cluster Head node determines its Cluster Head for this round (random selection with obstacle).

  • Each non-Cluster Head transmits a join-request message (Join-REQ) back to its chosen Cluster Head using a CSMA MAC protocol.

  • Cluster Head node sets up a TDMA schedule for data transmission coordination within the cluster.

  • LEACH


    Leach

    Flow graph for Setup phase[6]

    LEACH


    Cluster head selection algorithm 6

    Cluster Head Selection Algorithm[6]

    Pi(t) is the probability with which node i elects itself to be Cluster Head at the beginning of the round r+1 (which starts at time t) such that expected number of cluster-head nodes for this round is k.

    (1)

    k = number of clusters during each round.

    N = number of nodes in the network.

    LEACH


    Cluster head selection algorithm 61

    Let’s assume N=100 nodes; K= 5 clusters. In each round we select 5 nodes out of 100 to be CHs. Suppose r =19 rounds already passed. That is, 5 * 19 =95 nodes already became CHs once. N/K = 20 rounds in each big cycle. All nodes should be a CH ONCE per big cycle. Pi(t) = 5 / (100-5*( 19 mod 20)) = 5 / (100-5*19) = 5/5 = 1. This means 5 remaining nodes should 100% be CHs.

    Cluster Head Selection Algorithm [6]

    • Each node will be Cluster Head once in N/k rounds (Round #1,2,3 … Round #N/K, then Round #1, #2, …). -- N/K also means cluster size ! – In each cluster, each sensor has equal chance to become CH.

    • Probability for each node i to be a cluster-head at time t

      (2)

      Ci(t) = it determines whether node i has been a Cluster Head in current round cycle (Total: r rounds; every N/K rounds we form a “cycle”; In each cycle each node should become CH ONLY ONCE).

      k = number of clusters during each round.

      N = number of nodes in the network.

    If in a “cycle “(it has N’K rounds) a sensor has become CH, it shouldn’t be CH again in the current “cycle”.

    LEACH


    Cluster head selection algorithm 62

    Cluster Head Selection Algorithm[6]

    (3)

    = total no. of nodes eligible to be a cluster-head at time t.

    This ensures energy at each node to be approx. equal after every N/k rounds.

    Using (2) and (3), expected no of Cluster Heads per round is,

    (4)

    LEACH


    Cluster formation algorithm 2

    Cluster Formation Algorithm [2]

    • Cluster Heads broadcasts an advertisement message (ADV) using CSMA MAC protocol.

      • ADV = node’s ID + distinguishable header.

        • Based on the received signal strength of ADV message, each non-Cluster Head node determines its Cluster Head for this round (random selection with obstacle).

    • Each non-Cluster Head transmits a join-request message (Join-REQ) back to its chosen Cluster Head using a CSMA MAC protocol.

      • Join-REQ = node’s ID + cluster-head ID + header.

    • Cluster Head node sets up a TDMA schedule for data transmission coordination within the cluster.

    • TDMA Schedule

      • Prevents collision among data messages.

      • Energy conservation in non cluster-head nodes.

    LEACH


    Original thesis

    Note: We are looking at (r+1) –th round !!! (It means r rounds have passed,

    Original thesis

    k -- # CHs in each round

    k: Each round has k CHs !

    N/k means the length of a “small round cyle” !

    (r mod N/k) means how many “small round cycles” passed.

    Has been a CH in last N/K rounds; we said “ be a CH once per N/K rounds”. Thus P(t)=0

    LEACH


    Leach

    LEACH


    Leach

    LEACH


    Dynamic cluster formation

    Dynamic Cluster Formation

    Clusters at time t

    Clusters at time t+d

    LEACH


    Leach

    Steady-State Phase

    • TDMA schedule is used to send data from node to head cluster.

    • Head Cluster aggregates the data received from node cluster’s.

    • Communication is via direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) and each cluster uses a unique spreading code to reduce inter-cluster interference.

    • Data is sent from the cluster head nodes to the BS using a fixed spreading code and CSMA.

    Timeline showing LEACH operation [6]

    LEACH


    Leach

    Steady-State Phase

    • Assumptions

      • Nodes are all time synchronized and start the setup phase at same time.

        • BS sends out synchronized pulses to the nodes.

      • Cluster Head must be awake all the time.

    • To reduce inter-cluster interference, each cluster in LEACH communicates using direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS).

    • Data is sent from the cluster head nodes to the BS using a fixed spreading code and CSMA.

    Timeline showing LEACH operation [6]

    LEACH


    Flow chart for steady phase 6

    Flow Chart for Steady Phase[6]

    LEACH


    Leach

    LEACH


    Sensor data aggregation

    Sensor Data Aggregation

    • Data aggregation is performed on all the uncompressed data at cluster head.

    • Performing local data aggregation requires less energy than sending all the unprocessed data to the BS.

      • L:1 data compression.

      • EDA : energy dissipation per bit for data aggregation.

      • ETX : energy dissipation per bit to transmit to BS.

    LEACH


    Sensor data aggregation 6

    Sensor Data Aggregation [6]

    • L = 20, BS is 100m away, cost of commn. to BS = 1.05 X 10-6 J /bit .

    • Result: when energy to perform DA < 1.05 X 10-6 J, total energy dissipation of the system is less using data aggregation.

    LEACH


    Leach c bs cluster formation

    LEACH-C: BS Cluster Formation

    • LEACH doesn’t guarantee cluster head spread in the network.

    • Centralized clustering algorithm for cluster formation.

    • Uniform distribution of Cluster Heads through out the network.

    • Uses same steady-state protocol as LEACH.

    • Set-up phase

      • Each node specifies its location(usingGPS) and energy level to the BS.

      • BS runs an optimization algorithm to determine the cluster’s for that round.

      • BS determines optimal clusters and broadcasts a message containing cluster head ID for each node.

    LEACH


    Leach f fixed cluster rotating cluster head

    LEACH-F: Fixed Cluster, Rotating Cluster Head

    • Clusters are formed once using centralized cluster formation algorithm(LEACH-C) and are fixed.

    • Cluster Head position rotates among the nodes in the cluster.

      • BS determines optimal clusters and broadcasts a message containing cluster head ID for each node.

    • First node listed in the cluster becomes Cluster Head for first round.

    • Steady-state protocol is identical to LEACH protocol.

    • Advantage: No setup overhead at the beginning of each round.

    • Disadvantages

      • Requires more transmit power from nodes.

      • Increases energy dissipation of non CH node and inter-cluster interference.

      • Not practical for dynamic system.

      • Doesn’t handle node mobility.

    LEACH


    Leach simulation 6

    LEACH Simulation [6]

    100 node random test network

    LEACH


    Leach simulation

    LEACH Simulation

    tround = 0.08 seconds * (Estart / 9 mJ)

    Estart : initial energy of the nodes.

    tround : time after which cluster-heads and associated clusters should be rotated

    LEACH


    Leach simulation result

    LEACH – Simulation Result

    System Lifetime

    Energy dissipation

    LEACH


    Leach system life time after 1200 rounds

    LEACH - System Life TimeAfter 1200 rounds

    Live nodes (circled)

    Dead nodes (dotted)

    LEACH


    Leach results

    LEACH – Results

    • Factor of 7 reduction in energy dissipation as compared to Direct Communication

    • Uniform distribution of energy-usage in the network

    • Doubles the system lifetime compared to other methods

    • Nodes die essentially in random fashion, thus maintain the network coverage

    LEACH


    Leach centralized leach c base station cluster formation

    LEACH-Centralized (Leach-C ): Base Station Cluster Formation

    Mechanism

    • Send data about position and energy level to the Base Station

    • Base Station are calculating Energy consume that needed

    • Base Station define cluster head and cluster node with the ID number and also cluster area.

      In fact ..

      LEACH-C delivers 40% more data per unit energy than LEACH

    LEACH


    Leach c simulation result

    LEACH-C : Simulation Result

    Total amount of data received at the BS over time.

    Number of nodes alive per amount of data sent to the BS

    LEACH


    Leach pros

    LEACH – Pros

    Pros

    • As Hierarchical Topology, LEACH is fundamental algorithm design.

    • Theoretical analysis go well with the simulation results.

    • Better energy utilization and system life time.

    • The algorithm provides prolonged network coverage ( low latency ).

    LEACH


    Leach cons

    LEACH –Cons

    Cons

    • The simulations are still to be performed using the Network simulator

    • Fault-tolerance issues – when nodes fail or behave unexpectedly

    • The paper assumes all the nodes begin with same energy – this assumption may not be realistic

    LEACH


    Optimal percentage of cluster heads

    Optimal percentage of cluster heads

    • If number of cluster-heads is less than k, some nodes have to transmit very far to reach the cluster head, large global energy.

    • If number of cluster-heads is more than k, distance does not reduce substantially, more cluster heads have to transmit the long haul distances to the base station, hence compression is less.

    LEACH


    Leach simulation1

    LEACH Simulation

    LEACH


    Reference

    Reference

    • Heinzelman Wendi Rabiner, Chandrakasan Anantha, and Balakrishnan Hari. Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks. In IEEE. Published in the Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, January 4-7, 2000, Maui, Hawaii.

    • Heinzelman Wendi Rabiner, Chandrakasan Anantha, and Balakrishnan Hari. An Application-Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless Microsensor Networks. IEEE Transactions On Wireless Communication, Vol. 1, No. 4, October 2002.

    • Handy. M. J, Haase. M, Timmermann. D. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy with Deterministic Cluster-Head Selection. IEEE International Conference on Mobile and Wireless Communications Networks, 2002, Stockholm.

    • Yrjölä Juhana. Summary of Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks, 13th March 2005.

    • Karl Holger, Willig Andreas. Protocol and Architecture for Wireless Sensor Network, John Willey and Sons Ltd, 2005.

      6. W. Heinzelman, “Application-specific protocol architectures for wireless networks,” Ph.D. dissertstion, Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge, 2000.

    LEACH


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