Revolutions in the west
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Revolutions in the West. Chapter 23. The Age of Revolution - 3 Forces in Europe. Cultural – Enlightenment thinkers called for religious freedom, aristocratic reform, and democracy

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Revolutions in the West

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Revolutions in the west

Revolutions in the West

Chapter 23


The age of revolution 3 forces in europe

The Age of Revolution -3 Forces in Europe

  • Cultural – Enlightenment thinkers called for religious freedom, aristocratic reform, and democracy

  • Commercialization – stirred the economy, new merchant class challenged aristocrats, promoted technology in production

  • Population Revolution – ceased movement of disease, improved nutrition, decrease in the death rate


American revolution

American Revolution

  • 1775, rebellion of British colonies

  • Taxes, Stamp Act

  • Declaration of Independence

  • Based on Enlightenment principles

  • 1789 – Constitutional government based on checks and balances


French revolution

French Revolution

  • French Revolution, 1789, shaped all of western Europe

  • Enlightenment thinkers – limit Catholic Church, aristocracy, monarchy

  • Middle class

  • Peasantry

  • French government was unwilling to change

  • 1787-1789, economic slump, bad harvests

  • King Louis XVI called a meeting of the Estates-General, Parliament to talk of reform


July 14 1789 bastille day

July 14, 1789Bastille Day

  • Bastille prison stormed by angry Parisians

  • Estates-General became the National Assembly

  • Declaration of the Rights of Man

    • freedom of thought

    • Natural rights “liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression”

  • Banning of Manorialism

  • Catholic Church attacked

  • Birth of a new constitution – freedom of religion, press, and property

  • Strong parliament was created to limit power of the king


Reign of terror let them eat cake

Reign of Terror “Let them eat cake”

  • Monarchies of Britain, Prussia, and Austria opposed this reform

  • Radical takeover who abolished the monarchy

  • King Louis XVI took a trip to the guillotine, with his wife

  • Execution of several thousand radical enemies

  • If you looked at a radical wrong, it could cost you your head


Maximillien robespierre

Maximillien Robespierre

  • Enlightenment lawyer

  • Led execution of King Louis XVI

  • Took over leadership of the government

  • “Cult of the Supreme Being”

  • Called for a purge of moderate leaders – he was the one who lost his head


Revolutions in the west

Who could now restore order?A bold, short, French military officer?Will the Revolution fall into reversal?


Napoleon bonaparte

Napoleon Bonaparte

  • 1799, coup d’etat, government takeover

  • Upheld religious freedom, equality of men and women

  • Napoleonic Code – improvement on education, banking, and the legal system

  • Expansion abroad

  • 1807, Napoleon ruled largest empire since the Romans

  • 1812 invasion of Russia…brrrrrrrrrr….failed

  • Exiled in Elba, only to return for the famous Hundred Days

  • Legacy – revolutionary legislation


Congress of vienna

Congress Of Vienna

  • 1815

  • Efforts to reach a peace settlement in France

  • Strong powers were set up around France – Germany, Piedmont

  • Britain gained new territories

  • Russia got a part of Poland

  • Stability fro 50 years

  • Idea was to restore French monarchy and unify the church and kings of Europe


Conservatives

Conservatives

  • Advocated restoration of the monarchy

  • Defended the Church

  • Opposed revolutionary goals


Liberals

Liberals

  • Stressed limited state interference in individual life

  • Urged importance of constitutional rule and parliaments

  • Protection of religion, press, and assembly

  • Middle class

  • Economic reform + better education = industrial growth


Radicals

Radicals

  • Advocated broader voting rights than liberals

  • Outright democracy

  • Social reform for the lower classes (communism)


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