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TLC – The Teaching Learning Circle - Part III. T eachers are leaders. In China teachers are called the “engineers of the soul”. They must truly become “transformational leaders”. 老师是领导者。在中国,老师被赞誉为“灵魂的工程师”。老师必须成为真正的“变革型领袖”。. Teacher As a Transformational Leader. TLC.

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TLC – The Teaching Learning Circle - Part III

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Tlc the teaching learning circle part iii

TLC – The Teaching Learning Circle - Part III


Teacher as a transformational leader

Teachers are leaders. In China teachers are called the “engineers of the soul”. They must truly become “transformational leaders”.

老师是领导者。在中国,老师被赞誉为“灵魂的工程师”。老师必须成为真正的“变革型领袖”。

Teacher As a Transformational Leader

TLC

Transformational Leadership


Teacher as a transformational leader1

Transformational leaders are willing to sacrifice their lives for those who they lead. Such leaders believe in the potential of those they lead. Transformational leaders believe that those who they lead can become better than they are. Transformational education is similar.

变革型领袖愿意为了他们引领的人牺牲自己。变革型领袖相信被领导者的潜力。变革型领袖相信被领导者可以变得更优秀。变革型教育亦是如此。

Teacher As a Transformational Leader

TLC

Transformational Leadership


Teacher as a transformational leader2

As teachers we must believe that our students have great potential and our job is to help cultivate it. Baha’u’llah wrote that we should “regard man as a mine rich in gems of inestimable value” and that “Education can … cause it to reveal its treasures, and enable mankind to benefit therefrom.”

作为老师,我们必须相信我们的学生具有强大的潜力,我们的任务就是帮助学生培养潜能。巴哈欧拉写道,“人是一座丰富无价的宝石矿”“惟教育能使其显现珍藏,使人类从中获益。”

Teacher As a Transformational Leader

TLC

Transformational Leadership


Teacher as a transformational leader3

We must believe our students (no matter how young) can think deeply, can express love and caring, and can rise up to many challenges. Our job as a teacher is to create the right kind of challenges and to believe that our students can achieve a high standard of excellence.

我们必须相信我们的学生(无论多小)都能深入思考,能表达关爱,能应对挑战。作为老师,我们的工作是创造适当的挑战,相信我们的学生能够达到优秀的水平。

Teacher As a Transformational Leader

TLC

Transformational Leadership


The use of questions as part of the educational process

In order to discover the jewels that are in every student we must use a variety of techniques and methods. One such technique is the use of questions.

为了发掘每个学生身上潜藏的宝藏,我们要运用各种技巧和方法。其中一个方法就是问问题。

The Use of Questions as Part of the Educational Process

TLC

Questions


The use of questions as part of the educational process1

Questions can be used in a variety of ways. Some are positive and some are negative. In your group create two role plays. Both using questions. One is negative and one is positive.

问问题也存在各种技巧。问得好,可以达到积极的效果,反之不然。每个组自创两个短剧,一个体现问问题达到积极效果的短剧,另一个产生负面效果的短剧。

The Use of Questions as Part of the Educational Process

TLC

Groups show your role plays.

Questions


The use of questions as part of the educational process2

  • There are three kinds of questions we will discuss here:

    • Closed ended questions

    • Open ended questions

    • Hybrid questions

  • 接下来我们讨论三种类型的问题:

    • 1.封闭式问题

    • 2.开放式问题

    • 3.混合型问题

The Use of Questions as Part of the Educational Process

TLC

Questions


Closed ended questions

Closed ended questions normally have a particular correct answer. Here are some examples of closed ended questions:

What color was the boys shirt? (blue)

What were the colors in the sunset? (orange, red, gray)

封闭式问题通常只有一个正确的答案。下面两个例子就是封闭式问题:

1.那些男孩子衬衫是什么颜色?(蓝色)

2.日落有哪些颜色?(橙色,红色,灰色)

Closed Ended Questions

TLC

Questions


Open ended questions

Open ended questions do not have right and wrong answers. Here are some examples:

Why do you think Sally was so happy?

What is your favorite color?

What makes you happier to give something or to receive something?

开放式问题没有所谓正确或错误的答案。

下面举出了三个例子:

1.你觉得莎莉为什么不开心?

2.你最喜欢的颜色是什么?

3.哪一种会让你更快乐:付出还是接受?

Open Ended Questions

TLC

Questions


Hybrid questions

Hybrid questions are closed ended questions that a teacher or parent treats as an open ended question. In the next slide there is a dialogue between a teacher and a student. Before the dialogue takes place the teacher has read a story. In the story Jack is wearing a blue cotton shirt.

混合型问题是封闭式问题,但一些老师或家长将其视作为开放式问题。接下来有一段老师和学生的对话。对话前,老师读了一个故事。故事里,杰克穿了一件蓝色的棉衬衫。

Hybrid Questions

TLC

Questions


Hybrid questions1

Teacher: Did you like the story?

Class: Yes, teacher we liked the story?

Teacher: Who can tell me about the story? First, tell me what color was Jack’s shirt?

Sally: Jack’s shirt was yellow and purple?

Teacher: Really? So, Sally why do you think Jack’s shirt was yellow and purple?

Sally: Because yellow and purple are the most beautiful colors in the world.

Teacher: So Sally loves yellow and purple. What about others? From the story do you remember what color was Jack’s shirt?

Hybrid Questions

TLC

Questions


Hybrid questions2

老师:大家喜欢这个故事吗?

全班:是的,老师,我们喜欢这个故事。

老师:那么我来考考大家,首先,告诉我杰克穿的什么颜色的衬衫?

莎莉:杰克穿的一件黄色和紫色的衬衫。

老师:是吗?那么,莎莉,为什么你认为杰克穿的是黄色和紫色的衬衫呢?

莎莉:因为黄色和紫色是这个世界上最好看的颜色。

老师:那么,莎莉很喜欢黄色和紫色喽。其他人的同学呢?大家记得故事里杰克穿的什么颜色的衬衫吗?

Hybrid Questions

TLC

Questions


Hybrid questions3

In your teams discuss the following: In the scenario we just saw what did the teacher do? Why? How is the different from common teaching practices? Is this way better or worse? Why?

小组讨论:在刚才的场景中,那位老师是怎么做的?为什么要这么做?这位老师的做法和其他一般老师的做法有什么区别?这种方法好吗?为什么?

Hybrid Questions

TLC

Teams share your thinking with the class.

Questions


What are children

“Children are even as a branch that is fresh and green; they will grow up in whatever way ye train them. Take the utmost care to give them high ideals and goals, so that once they come of age, they will cast their beams like brilliant candles on the world, and will not be defiled by lusts and passions in the way of animals, heedless and unaware, but instead will set their hearts on achieving everlasting honor and acquiring all the excellences of humankind.” -- ‘Abdu’l-Bahá

What are children?

TLC

Children


What are children1

孩子们犹如鲜嫩青翠的枝条:他们将按照培养他们的任何方式成长。要悉心培养孩子,使之树立崇高的理想和远大的目标,这样,一旦长大成人,他们就会象明亮的蜡烛一样将自己的光芒照射到全世界,不会象动物一样被贪婪与情欲所玷污,掉以轻心而又执迷不悟,相反,他们决心要获得永久的荣誉和人类的所有优秀品质。 -- ‘Abdu’l-Bahá

What are children?

TLC

Children


What are children2

“Training in morals and good conduct is far more important than book learning. A child that is cleanly, agreeable, of good character, well-behaved—even though he be ignorant—is preferable to a child that is rude, unwashed, ill-natured, and yet becoming deeply versed in all the sciences and arts. The reason for this is that the child who conducts himself well, even though he be ignorant, is of benefit to others, while an ill-natured, ill-behaved child is corrupted and harmful to others, even though he be learned. If, however, the child be trained to be both learned and good, the result is light upon light.

.” -- ‘Abdu’l-Bahá

What are children?

TLC

Children


What are children3

培养良好的道德行为远比学习书本上的知识更重要。一个洁净、讨人喜欢、品格良好、行为端正的孩子,即使他没有学识,也胜于一个粗鲁、肮脏、品性不良却精通各门科学艺术的孩子。其原因在于:品行端正的孩子,即使没有学识,却对他人有益;而品性不良、行为不端的孩子,即使有知识,对他人会有害无益。然而,如果把孩子培养成既有学识又品德良好的人,其结果则是锦上添花。-- ‘Abdu’l-Bahá

What are children?

TLC

Children


What should be the aims of educations

Discuss in your teams: Based on the previous slides and on your own knowledge what should be the aims and goals of education?

小组讨论:基于前面的学到的内容和自己的知识,思考教育的目的和目标应当是什么?

What should be the aims of educations?

TLC

Teams share your thinking with the class.

Children


What is intelligence

In the past educators thought intelligence was something we inherited from our parents. They tired to measure this by creating IQ tests. These test primarily measured linguistic and mathematical abilities and tended to favor the dominant culture.

过去,教育者认为,孩子的智力是从父母那里遗传的。于是,发明了智力测试来测量智力。这些测试主要测量语言和数理能力,更倾向于对主导文化的测试。

What is intelligence?

TLC

Intelligence, multiple intelligence and TOE


Multiple intelligence

In 1983, Howard Gardner pioneered the idea that there are multiple kinds of intelligence that should be recognized by educators. He first developed a list of seven intelligences. Later he expanded his list to eight and then nine and then ten.

1983年,霍华德.加德纳首先提出了“多元智能理论”。最初的理论包括7项智能,后来拓展为8个,再后来9个,一直到10个。

Multiple Intelligence

TLC

Intelligence, multiple intelligence and TOE


Multiple intelligence1

Gardner’s ten intelligences: 1. spatial, 2. linguistic, 3. logical-mathematical, 4. bodily-kinesthetic, 5. musical, 6. interpersonal, 7. intrapersonal, 8. naturalistic, 9. existential, 10. moral intelligence

加德纳的“多元智能”包括:1.空间智能;2.语言智能;3.逻辑数理智能;4.身体动觉智能;5.音乐智能;6.交往智能;7.自知自省智能;8.自然观察智能;9.生存智能;10.道德智能

Multiple Intelligence

TLC

Intelligence, multiple intelligence and TOE


Multiple intelligence2

In your team discuss if you think the list of 10 intelligences is complete. Explain your thinking.

小组讨论:你认为这10个智能全面吗?请解释你的想法。

Multiple Intelligence

TLC

Teams share your thinking with the class.

Intelligence, multiple intelligence and TOE


Multiple intelligences

Here is a drawing showing 9 of Gardner’s intelligences

这幅图显示了加德纳的“多元智能理论”中的9项智能。

Multiple

Intelligences

TLC

Intelligence, multiple intelligence and TOE


Learning modalities

Beyond intelligence it is known that each of us learns in different ways. We all have what are called preferences in learning modalities such as: visual, auditory and kinesthetic.

除了智力外,我们知道每个人学习的方法不一样。我们都有自己偏爱的学习模式,例如:视觉模式、听觉模式,动觉模式。

Learning Modalities

TLC

Intelligence, multiple intelligence and TOE


The toe model

Every learner has different learning modalities and different intelligences. There are other factors that influence the learning ability of every student. There are more factors than it is practical possible for a teacher to take into consideration. The TOE model attempts to simplify this.

每个人智力不同,都有自己的学习模式。还有一些其他因素影响每个学生的学习能力。还有更多的因素对老师来说更具实用性,应当给予考虑。TOE模型可以将这个问题简化。

The TOE Model

TLC

Intelligence, multiple intelligence and TOE


The toe model1

The TOE model says that every person has tendencies. Where these tendencies come from is not the primary concern. They could come from the DNA or the parents, they could come from previous learning or they could come from some “divine calling” (a special gift that each human is called to bring to the world).

TOE模型指出,每个人有各自的能力趋向。这些能力趋向从何而来不是要考虑的主要问题,有可能是基因遗传,有可能是源于之前的学习,或者有可能来自“神的召唤”(每个人被召唤着将一些特殊的天赋带到人世间来)。

The TOE Model

TLC

Intelligence, multiple intelligence and TOE


The toe model2

The TOE model does not concern itself with where these tendencies come from. These tendencies or special interests are there in every man, woman and child. These tendencies are the “T” in the TOE model.

TOE模型并不关注这些能力趋向从何而来。这些能力趋向或特殊的兴趣存在于每个人身上。TOE中的T指的就是能力趋向。

The TOE Model

TLC

Intelligence, multiple intelligence and TOE


The toe model3

  • In the TOE model if a tendency meets with an opportunity then there is an encounter. This encounter is what we commonly call learning. So in the TOE model we are concerned with:

    • T = tendencies

    • O = opportunities

    • E = encounters

  • 在TOE模型中,如果能力趋向和机会相遇。这种相遇就是我们通常所说的学习。所以,TOE分别指:

    • T = 能力趋向

    • O = 机会

    • E = 相遇

The TOE Model

TLC

Intelligence, multiple intelligence and TOE


The toe model4

Using the TOE model the role of the teacher (and of parents) is to watch for and observe the tendencies of a child. Next the teacher provides many kinds of opportunities for children. When these opportunities match with the tendencies we have a special kind of learning called an encounter.

运用TOE模型,老师或家长观察孩子的能力趋向。接着老师为孩子创造很多各种机会。当这些机会与能力趋向相匹配时,我们就得等到了一种特殊的学习,称之为“相遇”。

The TOE Model

TLC

Intelligence, multiple intelligence and TOE


The toe model5

So using the TOE model the main role of the teacher is to provide many kinds of opportunities.

运用TOE模型,老师的主要作用就是为学生提供各种机会。

The TOE Model

TLC

Intelligence, multiple intelligence and TOE


The toe model6

  • In your teams discuss:

    • how the TOE model can give comfort to a caring teacher

    • and what kind of activities can best support learning as defined by the TOE model

  • 小组讨论:

    • TOE模型怎样才能给予老师安慰

    • 哪些活动符合TOE模型的要求并最有利于帮助学习?

The TOE Model

TLC

Teams share your thinking with the class.

Intelligence, multiple intelligence and TOE


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