Modelling of biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems in the arctic ocean
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Participants: Nadja Steiner (DFO/EC), Dieter Wolf-Gladrow (AWI), Diane Lavoie (DFO),David Plummer (EC), Yvonnick Le Clainche (U. Rimouski), Clara Deal (IARC/UAF), Leif Anderson (U Gotenborg), Mat Reagan (Berkeley Lab). Modelling of Biogeochemical Cycles and Ecosystems in the Arctic Ocean.

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Modelling of Biogeochemical Cycles and Ecosystems in the Arctic Ocean

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Participants: Nadja Steiner (DFO/EC), Dieter Wolf-Gladrow (AWI), Diane Lavoie (DFO),David Plummer (EC), Yvonnick Le Clainche (U. Rimouski), Clara Deal (IARC/UAF), Leif Anderson (U Gotenborg), Mat Reagan (Berkeley Lab)

Modelling of Biogeochemical Cycles and Ecosystems in the Arctic Ocean

2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

1. Science questions that can be best answered with coupled Arctic regional climate models; science questions missing from existing plans.

Time scales: current/preindustrial, future (next decades),

past (glacial-interglacial and beyond)‏

What is the impact of climate-relevant gases produced

in the ocean on Arctic climate?

How will cycling of elements (C,N,P,Ca,S,O,Fe) change in

the next decades?

Strengths of biogeochemical feedbacks.


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

Cycling of nutrients and organic matter in the current

system: What are the major processes? Rates?

Coherent quantitative description?

How much food is available for higher trophic levels?

(fish, mammals),

Occurance of HABs...

Future changes due to temperature change,

retreat/vanishing of summer sea ice, ocean acidification,

coastal erosion, melting of permafrost, ...:

What is the impact on cycling of nutrients and organic

matter? Change in marine ecosystems (primary production,

species assemblage, ..., impact on higher trophic levels)?


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

Biogeochemical feedbacks

Sulfur: DMS -> Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) ->

-> radiation -> temperature -> ...

Impact of phytoplankton blooms on mixed layer

temperature (Manizza et al., 2005)‏

Impact of ice algae on melting of sea ice

(Zeebe et al., 1996)‏

(Biogeo)chemistry in sea ice: discovery of ikaite

(CaCO3 * H2O), consequences for bromine oxid (BrO)‏

formation and ozone depletion events (ODEs) in polar

marine boundary layer, mercury sink,

carbon flux within sea-ice, marine carbonate system


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

Biogeochemical feedbacks

Instability of gashydrates -> CH4 release from sediments

-> oxidation of CH4 in the water column -> ...

(bacterial request of copper: Scott Elliot)‏

Impact of black carbon on albedo and melting of sea ice

Input of nutrients (including metals) and various forms

of carbon: transformations in the river-sea transition

zone.

Dissolution of CaCO3 in surface sediments (ocean

acidification)


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

Biogeochemical feedbacks

Instability of gashydrates -> CH4 release from sediments

-> oxidation of CH4 in the water column -> ...

(bacterial request of copper: Scott Elliot)‏

Impact of black carbon on albedo and melting of sea ice

Input of nutrients (including metals) and various forms

of carbon: transformations in the river-sea transition

zone.

Dissolution of CaCO3 in surface sediments (ocean

acidification)


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

The inclusion of a biogeochemical process into coupled models makes sense only when the corresponding feedback implemented, e.g. when, for example, atmospheric DMS and its transformation is included.What do atmospheric models represent?


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

2. Existing/planned modelling and model validation efforts to address the above

AWI: Polarstern expeditions (central Arctic, Fram Strait)

Various research activities in the Lena Delta and

Laptev Sea (river input, coastal erosion, sedimentation)‏

Needed: historical data review, archive......

-> develop modified sampling strategies


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

3. Reasonable boundaries for the 'Arctic System' for respective research areas; What are the opportunities and limitations due to a limited Arctic model domain?

Hydrological cycle under global change requires larger

domain (or time dependent boundary conditions).

The same applies on somewhat longer time scale to

inflow of Atlantic and Pacific water.

Opportunities: better representation of small scale processes


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

4. How are observations incorporated into model development and how can the link be improved?

Parameterizations of various processes based on

observations.

Data assimilation/inverse models to improve

parameterizations.

Involve modellers in development of sampling strategies

(What is needed? What is possible?)‏

Involve observers in model development - improve process understanding => Two way communication !!!

Modellers need to tell funding agencies they need observations (seasonal data, fill local gaps, archive historical data)‏


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

5. Would regional modelling efforts benefit from an international, centralized method for sharing model output for intercomparison and for sharing validation data and validation code/methods?

Yes!

Open access of model output and observations parallel

to publication of articles (collaborative ?).

Compare: open access to CO2 observations (CDIAC).

Data center for validation and intercomparison:

provide constraints for data submission


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

6. What interactions are there between regional modelling and global modelling in your field of research? Would projects benefit from a community-coordinated program for obtaining data from and sharing model output with a global modelling community?

Need interaction for time dependent boundary conditions...

Compexity of ecosystem models - global versus regioal

CCCma - close collaboration between global GCM and RCM, forecast .... for ecosystem only starting.

other groups similar?

CICE, many groups collaborating, development of parameterisations


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

7. What plans are in action for including emerging modules into existing regional arctic models?

IARC/UAF/LANL: Regional ecosystem, ice algae , nutrients in

CICE (sea-ice internal), DMS within ice

DFO/EC: Earth system model developments, ecosystem models

in ocean models, 1-D: marine sulphur cycle (DMS), ice algae

Berkely Lab/ LANL: coupling a gas hydrate/methane model in

POP


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

8. What human dimension modelling is being done in conjunction with physical modelling?


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

9. What are possible interface strategies for collaboration between natural-science modelling and research on adaptation and human living conditions?

Importance of river input ( Influx Changes with

land use changes, permafrost melting)‏

Ocean acidification

Fisheries

Harmful algal blooms (HABs), ...


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

10.What level of interaction between components is desirable?

Depending on feedbacks

(examples: Atmospheric deposition

Gas exchange with retreating ice cover,

ice ecosystem, river inflow ...)‏


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

11. What is the benefit of interactive coupling on the complete system?

Inclusion of feedbacks.

Continuous simulations


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

12. Which other components should your component be coupled to?

Answer depends on questions/time scales.

Start: atmosphere, ocean, ice, pelagic ecosystem

(carbonate system, nutrients, plankton)‏

ecosystem in the ice

climatically active gases ...

On longer time scales: add sediment module


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

13. On what time scale is interactive coupling/one-way coupling useful?

General answer: depends on the feedback(s) under

investigation

Limitation due to boundary conditions

in regional models.

What is required: list of possible feedbacks, their

strengths and their characteristic time constants.


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

Coupling of ecosystem models with circulation models

The coupling of ecosystem models to circulation models

is relative easy because the various compartments of

ecosystem models (nutrients, DIC, TA, phytoplankton,

zooplankton) can be treated similar to other passive

tracers, however, with specific sources and sinks.

Thus the implementation should be possible in less than

one month. For gases (CO2, DMS, ...) air-sea gas-exchange

has to be added.


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

The End

Thanks for your attention


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

Discussion


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

Steiner & Denman 2008


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

Steiner & Denman 2008


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

Steiner & Denman 2008


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

Ikaite


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

Loose et al. 2009


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

Type of questions

Global: cycles of elements

Regional: climate-relevant gases, food production

(fisheries, higher trophic levels)‏

Local: variations in ecosystems

Fundamental: fast changes

Carmack & Wassmann, 2006


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

Manizza et al. 2005


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

Organic Carbon Budget: Arctic Ocean vs. Global OceanStein & Macdonald (2004)‏

Quantity Arctic Ocean Global Ocean

Primary production > 330 (1%) 30000 - 50000

River input (POC) 5.5 130-200

River input (DOC) 24.5(10%) 210-230

Eolian input 1.7 100-320

Coastal erosion 5.4 ?

units: all values in 106 t C year-1


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

Manizza et al. 2005


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

Manizza et al. 2008


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

Zeebe et al. 1996


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

Dieckmann et al. 2008


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

Morin et al. 2008

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 7317–7324, 2008

www.atmos-chem-phys.net/8/7317/2008/


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

Zhao et al. 2008


2009 ASM Montreal Biogeochemical Outbreak

Earth System Model

… expansion of the COSMOS

Modules (following COSMOS)‏

Ice sheets model:

Mass balance & sea level

Ice-ocean interaction

Permafrost

ECHAM5

Chemistry

Isotope

Proxy

Models

Isotope modules: 13C,18O,30Si

ice cores, marine sediments, …

Ice

Sheets

Model

OASIS

  • Biogeochemistry/Ecosystem

  • marine biogeochemical cycles

  • (based on RECOM)‏

  • continental weathering input

  • sediment module

MPI-OM

HAMOCC5

Programme: PACES


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