Php part 1
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PHP Part 1. PHP Hypertext Preprocessor. Widely-used open-source scripting language Scripts are executed on the Server not the Client Runs on almost all webservers PHP files end with . php Can contain HTML, CSS, JavaScript and PHP code

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PHP Part 1

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Php part 1

PHP Part 1


Php hypertext preprocessor

PHP Hypertext Preprocessor

  • Widely-used open-source scripting language

  • Scripts are executed on the Server not the Client

    • Runs on almost all webservers

  • PHP files end with .php

    • Can contain HTML, CSS, JavaScript and PHP code

    • Are executed on the server, the resulting HTML is sent to the browser

    • Can collect form data

    • Can open, read, write, and close files on server

    • Can add, delete, modify data in a database

    • Can send and receive cookies


Php syntax

PHP Syntax

  • PHP scripts start with “<?php” and end with “?>”

  • PHP files should end with “.php”

  • <!DOCTYPE html>

  • <html>

  • <body>

  • <h1>Header</h1>

  • <?php

  • echo “Hello World!”;

  • ?>

  • </body>

  • </html>


Php syntax1

PHP Syntax

  • Uses //, #, /*…*/ for comments

  • All user defined functions, classes, and keywords are case-insensitive

  • All variables are case-sensitive

    • $color=“red”;echo “My car is “ . $color . “<br>”;echo “My house is “ . $COLOR . “<br>”;echo “My boat is “ . $coLOR . “<br>”;


Php variables

PHP Variables

  • Start with the $ sign followed by variable name

  • Variable name must start with a letter or _

  • Variable name cannot start with a number

  • Variable name can only contain (A-z, 0-9, _)

  • Variables are loosely typed

  • Three scopes for variables:

    • global – declared outside functions

    • local – declared inside functions

    • static – inside functions, but not deleted


Data types

Data Types

  • Strings

    • $x = “Hello world!”;echo $x;$y = ‘Hello world!’;echo $y;

  • Integers

    • $x = 4;

    • $y = 0x8C; // hex number

    • $z = 047; // octal number

  • Floating Point Numbers

    • $x = 3.14;

    • $y = 2.4e5;

    • $z = 4E-2;


Data types1

Data Types

  • Boolean

    • $x = true;

    • $y = false;

  • Arrays

    • $x = array(“foo”, “bar”, “baz”);

    • $y = array(“a”=>23, “answer”=>42);

  • Objects

    • class Person {var $name;function Person($name=“Fred”) { $this->name = $name;}function get_name() { return $this->name;}


Php operators

PHP Operators

  • The similar to JavaScript

    • +, -, *, /, %

    • =, +=, -=, *=, /=, %=

    • ++, --

    • ==, ===, !=, <>, !==, >, <, >=, <=

    • and, or, xor, &&, ||, !

  • Different from JavaScript

    • String: ‘.’, ‘.=‘ String concatenation

    • Array: +, ==, ===, !=, <>, !==


Conditionals

Conditionals

  • if (condition) {…}

  • if (condition) {…} else {…}

  • if (condition) {…} elseif (condition) {…} else {…}

  • switch (n) {case 1: … break;

  • case 2: … break;

  • default: …

  • }


Loops

Loops

  • while (condition) {…}

  • do {…} while(condition);

  • for (init counter; test counter; increment counter) {…}

  • foreach($array as $value) {…}


Functions

Functions

  • Use the ‘function’ keyword

  • Are case-insensitive

  • function functionName(param*) {…}

    • functionName must start with letter or _

    • param are variables ($x, $y)

    • parameters may have default values ($x=4)

    • may return value using ‘return’ key word


Php superglobals

PHP Superglobals

  • Built-in variables that are always available

    • $GLOBALS – stores global variables

    • $_SERVER – information about the server

    • $_REQUEST – access to data in the request

    • $_POST – access to data in the POST

    • $_GET – access to data in the GET

    • $_FILES

    • $_ENV

    • $_COOKIE

    • $_SESSION


Handling forms

Handling Forms

  • PHP has three ways to get the data in an HTML Request

    • $_REQUEST – is an associative array of key, value pairs for the data

    • $_POST – is an associative array of the data in a POST request

    • $_GET – is an associative array of the data in a GET request

  • The htmlspecialchars function converts special characters into HTML entities

    • &, “, ‘, <, >, etc


Example

Example

  • <form method=“post” action=“<?php echo $_SERVER[‘PHP_SELF’];?>

  • Name: <input type=“text” name=“fname”>

  • <input type=“submit” name=“Submit”>

  • </form>

  • <?php

  • echo “REQUEST: “; var_dump($_REQUEST);

  • echo “<br/>POST: “; var_dump($_POST);

  • echo “<br/>GET: “; var_dump($_GET);

  • ?>


Php file i o

PHP File I/O

  • fopen(filename,mode) – opens a file on the server

    • ‘r’ – read only at beginning of file

    • ‘r+’ – read plus write

    • ‘w’ – write only at beginning of file

    • ‘w+’ – read and write

    • ‘a’ – read only at end of file

    • ‘a+’ – read and write at end of file

  • intfwrite(handle, string) – writes string to file

  • string fread(handle, length) – reads length bytes

  • array file(filename) – reads file into an array

  • boolfclose(handle) – closes an open file pointer


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