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PHP Part 1. PHP Hypertext Preprocessor. Widely-used open-source scripting language Scripts are executed on the Server not the Client Runs on almost all webservers PHP files end with . php Can contain HTML, CSS, JavaScript and PHP code

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php hypertext preprocessor
PHP Hypertext Preprocessor
  • Widely-used open-source scripting language
  • Scripts are executed on the Server not the Client
    • Runs on almost all webservers
  • PHP files end with .php
    • Can contain HTML, CSS, JavaScript and PHP code
    • Are executed on the server, the resulting HTML is sent to the browser
    • Can collect form data
    • Can open, read, write, and close files on server
    • Can add, delete, modify data in a database
    • Can send and receive cookies
php syntax
PHP Syntax
  • PHP scripts start with “<?php” and end with “?>”
  • PHP files should end with “.php”
  • <!DOCTYPE html>
  • <html>
  • <body>
  • <h1>Header</h1>
  • <?php
  • echo “Hello World!”;
  • ?>
  • </body>
  • </html>
php syntax1
PHP Syntax
  • Uses //, #, /*…*/ for comments
  • All user defined functions, classes, and keywords are case-insensitive
  • All variables are case-sensitive
    • $color=“red”;echo “My car is “ . $color . “<br>”;echo “My house is “ . $COLOR . “<br>”;echo “My boat is “ . $coLOR . “<br>”;
php variables
PHP Variables
  • Start with the $ sign followed by variable name
  • Variable name must start with a letter or _
  • Variable name cannot start with a number
  • Variable name can only contain (A-z, 0-9, _)
  • Variables are loosely typed
  • Three scopes for variables:
    • global – declared outside functions
    • local – declared inside functions
    • static – inside functions, but not deleted
data types
Data Types
  • Strings
    • $x = “Hello world!”;echo $x;$y = ‘Hello world!’;echo $y;
  • Integers
    • $x = 4;
    • $y = 0x8C; // hex number
    • $z = 047; // octal number
  • Floating Point Numbers
    • $x = 3.14;
    • $y = 2.4e5;
    • $z = 4E-2;
data types1
Data Types
  • Boolean
    • $x = true;
    • $y = false;
  • Arrays
    • $x = array(“foo”, “bar”, “baz”);
    • $y = array(“a”=>23, “answer”=>42);
  • Objects
    • class Person {var $name;function Person($name=“Fred”) { $this->name = $name;}function get_name() { return $this->name;}
php operators
PHP Operators
  • The similar to JavaScript
    • +, -, *, /, %
    • =, +=, -=, *=, /=, %=
    • ++, --
    • ==, ===, !=, <>, !==, >, <, >=, <=
    • and, or, xor, &&, ||, !
  • Different from JavaScript
    • String: ‘.’, ‘.=‘ String concatenation
    • Array: +, ==, ===, !=, <>, !==
conditionals
Conditionals
  • if (condition) {…}
  • if (condition) {…} else {…}
  • if (condition) {…} elseif (condition) {…} else {…}
  • switch (n) {case 1: … break;
  • case 2: … break;
  • default: …
  • }
loops
Loops
  • while (condition) {…}
  • do {…} while(condition);
  • for (init counter; test counter; increment counter) {…}
  • foreach($array as $value) {…}
functions
Functions
  • Use the ‘function’ keyword
  • Are case-insensitive
  • function functionName(param*) {…}
    • functionName must start with letter or _
    • param are variables ($x, $y)
    • parameters may have default values ($x=4)
    • may return value using ‘return’ key word
php superglobals
PHP Superglobals
  • Built-in variables that are always available
    • $GLOBALS – stores global variables
    • $_SERVER – information about the server
    • $_REQUEST – access to data in the request
    • $_POST – access to data in the POST
    • $_GET – access to data in the GET
    • $_FILES
    • $_ENV
    • $_COOKIE
    • $_SESSION
handling forms
Handling Forms
  • PHP has three ways to get the data in an HTML Request
    • $_REQUEST – is an associative array of key, value pairs for the data
    • $_POST – is an associative array of the data in a POST request
    • $_GET – is an associative array of the data in a GET request
  • The htmlspecialchars function converts special characters into HTML entities
    • &, “, ‘, <, >, etc
example
Example
  • <form method=“post” action=“<?php echo $_SERVER[‘PHP_SELF’];?>
  • Name: <input type=“text” name=“fname”>
  • <input type=“submit” name=“Submit”>
  • </form>
  • <?php
  • echo “REQUEST: “; var_dump($_REQUEST);
  • echo “<br/>POST: “; var_dump($_POST);
  • echo “<br/>GET: “; var_dump($_GET);
  • ?>
php file i o
PHP File I/O
  • fopen(filename,mode) – opens a file on the server
    • ‘r’ – read only at beginning of file
    • ‘r+’ – read plus write
    • ‘w’ – write only at beginning of file
    • ‘w+’ – read and write
    • ‘a’ – read only at end of file
    • ‘a+’ – read and write at end of file
  • intfwrite(handle, string) – writes string to file
  • string fread(handle, length) – reads length bytes
  • array file(filename) – reads file into an array
  • boolfclose(handle) – closes an open file pointer
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