Chapter 3 how living things interact
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Chapter 3 How Living Things Interact. Outline. Everything is Connected Components of an Ecosystem Producers, Consumers & Decomposers Energy Flow in Ecosystems Relationships Within Ecosystems Ecosystems & Change. Read Introduction, pg 82. DDTs effects on Peregrine Falcons

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Chapter 3 How Living Things Interact

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Chapter 3 how living things interact

Chapter 3How Living Things Interact


Outline

Outline

  • Everything is Connected

  • Components of an Ecosystem

  • Producers, Consumers & Decomposers

  • Energy Flow in Ecosystems

  • Relationships Within Ecosystems

  • Ecosystems & Change


Read introduction pg 82

ReadIntroduction, pg 82

  • DDTs effects on Peregrine Falcons

  • Did not kill the falcons

  • Weakened the shells

Video


Effects of ddt

Effects of DDT

  • Hurt many living things including:

    • Honeybees

    • Bald Eagles

    • People

  • Took Scientists year to discover the connections between DDT and the problems it causes.

  • Difficult to know how Environmental factors will interact.


Ecology

Ecology

  • First used by a German biologist in 1869

    • Ernst Haeckel

  • Comes from the Greek word “oikos”

    • Meaning house

  • Ecology is the “study” of interactions between organisms and their “house” or environment.

    • including abiotic and biotic factors.


Environmental science and ecology

Environmental Science and Ecology

  • Environmental scientists focus mostly on the interactions between:

    • Humans and the Environment

  • They study what humans need to survive and what their effect is on the environment. (Ex. DDT, CO2 emmissions)

  • Important to understand and learn how to prevent harmful changes to the environment.


Biotic factors

Biotic Factors

  • Living parts of the Earth

    • What are some examples?

      • Animals, plants, fungi, microorganisms

      • Also include the wastes organisms produce

  • All are made up of cells

    • Single cell (prokaryotes)

    • Multicellular (eukaryotes)

      • How many cells in a human?


Biotic factors1

Biotic Factors


Biotic factors2

Biotic Factors

  • Single cell to multicellular

    • Single yeast cell to a human made up of trillions of cells.

  • Bacteria are also single celled organisms.

  • Some fun facts!!


Bacteria

Bacteria


Chapter 3 how living things interact

Did you know ... ?

  • There are about 200 species of bacteria in your mouth.

  • 1,000 bacteria can fit on the tip of a pin.

  • There are more bacterial cells than human cells in your body.

  • 99% of all bacteria are helpful

  • One healthy bacterium, given the proper environment, could multiply to over 2 million in just 7 hours.

  • There are more microbes on your body than there are humans on the planet.

  • It is thought that if you could weigh all living things on Earth, bacteria would make up ½ of the total weight.

  • An area of skin as small as one square inch can be home to more than half a million microbes.

  • Bacteria were first discovered in the 1670’s by van Leeuwenhoek.

  • A single teaspoon of topsoil contains more than a billion (1,000,000,000) bacteria.


Biotic factors classification

Biotic Factors & Classification

Biotic Factors are divided into a number of categories.

They can range from a single cell to trillions of cells.

Three domains are

Bacteria

Archaea

Eukarya

For additional info go to Classification ppt.


Common name confusion

Common name confusion ??

  • Maple Tree


Common name confusion1

Common name confusion ??

  • Maple Tree

    • Red ?

    • Silver ?

    • Sugar ?

    • Scarlet ?

    • Swamp ?


Common name confusion2

Common name confusion ??

  • Maple Tree

    • Japanese ?

      • Crimson Queen ?

      • Bonsai ?

      • Red leaf ?

      • Bloodgood ?


Common name confusion3

Common Name Confusion??

  • Jellyfish

    • Is it a fish?

  • Jellyfish are not fish at all. They are invertebrates, relatives of corals and sea anemones. A jelly has no head, brain, heart, eyes, nor ears. It has no bones, either. But that's no problem! To capture prey for food, jellies have a net of tentacles that contain poisonous, stinging cells.

http://www.divester.com/media/2006/06/diver_and_jellyfish.jpg

http://www.nationalgeographic.com/ngkids/9608/jellyfish/


Common name confusion4

Common Name Confusion??

  • Seahorse

    • Is it a horse?

  • Seahorses are truly unique, and not just because of their unusual equine shape. Unlike most other fish, they are monogamous and mate for life. Rarer still, they are among the only animal species on Earth in which the male bears the unborn young.

http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/fish/sea-horse.html


Common name confusion5

Common Name Confusion??

  • Are there others that you can think of?


Just for fun

Just for Fun!!

  • Strange species names.


Abiotic factors

Abiotic Factors

  • Nonliving parts of an Ecosystem

    • What are some examples?

      • Sunlight

      • Rocks, Minerals

      • Water

      • Air

      • Wind

      • Temperature


Abiotic factors1

Abiotic Factors

  • What are the abiotic factors here?

  • What are the biotic factors?


Living things interact with their non living environment

Living Things Interact with their Non-Living Environment

  • Every time you take a breath, you are interacting with the atmosphere

  • When you eat an apple you are interacting with plants.

  • When you take a drink you are interacting with water systems.


Lesson 2 components of an ecosystem

Lesson 2Components of an Ecosystem

  • Biotic & Abiotic factors are all part of an ecosystem

  • Connected by the flow of energy and nutrients in that ecosystem

  • Examples of Ecosystems

    • A coral reef

    • A desert

    • A grassland

    • A rotting log


Ecological levels of organization

Ecological Levels of Organization


Levels of interaction

Levels of Interaction

  • Individual Organism – Individuals of the same species often interact with one another.

    • You may witness member of species interacting with one another.

    • Ex. Two squirrels chasing each other or searching for food.


Levels of interaction1

Levels of Interaction

  • Population

    • A group of organisms that belong to the same species and live in a particular place at the same time.

    • Ex. Blue crabs in the Chesapeake bay; Black bears in Yellowstone National Park.


Properties of populations

Properties of Populations

  • Population Size

    • The number of individuals it contains

    • Can be difficult to measure directly

      • If small and immobile; can count

      • Usually too abundant, widespread or mobile

      • Scientists must estimate

    • Estimates are based on certain key assumptions and have potential for error.


Properties of populations1

Properties of Populations

  • Population Density

    • Measures how crowded a population is.

    • Expressed as the number of individuals per unit of area or volume

      • Ex.) U.S. pop. is about 30 people per square kilometer.

        • Japan 330/km2

        • UK 240/km2

        • Russia 10/km2


Properties of populations2

Properties of Populations

  • Dispersion

    • The spatial distribution of individuals within the population

    • Clumped

      • individuals are clustered together

    • Even

      • Individuals are separated by a fairly consistent distance

    • Random

      • Each individual’s location is independent of the locations of other individuals in the population


Levels of interaction2

Levels of Interaction

  • Community

    • A group of different populations that live and interact in the same area.

    • Ex. A forest community, a beach community, a savannah community.


Community structure

Community Structure

  • Randomly Arranged

    • Individuals live wherever resources are available.

  • Clumped

    • Individuals cluster together for protection, assistance, or resource access.

  • Regularly Arranged


Levels of interaction3

Levels of Interaction

  • Ecosystem

    • Made up of living and nonliving things and how they interact.

    • Ex. A beach community would include the living things as well as the sand, the tides and sunlight.


Levels of interaction4

Levels of Interaction

  • Biome

    • Groups of Ecosystems

    • Deserts, Forests (Coniferous, Deciduous & Rain), Grasslands, Savanna, Tundra & Oceans are all examples.


Levels of interaction5

Levels of Interaction

  • Biosphere

    • The highest level of interaction

    • Made up of all of Earth’s ecosystems

    • The biosphere is the life zone of the Earth and includes all living organisms, including man, and all organic matter that has not yet decomposed.


Chapter 3 how living things interact

Levels of Ecological Investigation


Energy transfer

Energy Transfer

  • Each Ecosystem is unique

  • Perform two important processes

    • Transfer energy from one organism to another

    • They cycle matter

      • (anything that has mass and takes up space)

  • Ecosystems work to move matter through different cycles.

  • These two processes link living and nonliving things


Sunlight source of energy for almost all ecosystems on earth

SunlightSource of energy for almost all ecosystems on Earth

  • Photosynthesis

    • The Process That Feeds the Biosphere

  • Directly or indirectly, photosynthesis nourishes almost the entire living world

  • This energy supports growth, movement, reproduction, homeostasis and other activities

  • Living things get the energy they need for these activities through cellular respiration.


Nutrient recycling

Nutrient Recycling

  • The second job of ecosystems is to cycle matter

  • Carbon, Oxygen and other elements are used many times by ecosystems; they can be recycled.

  • Ecosystems help elements move from one form to another

    • Carbon in a tree can become the carbon in a human body.

    • Oxygen absorbed by a fish could be the oxygen that feeds a fire


Linked processes

Linked Processes

  • Energy Transfer and Nutrient recycling are linked processes.

  • Without energy, the various elements could not be recycled (photosynthesis, cellular respiration) into new forms, and without elements (like carbon, oxygen hydrogen) energy could not be stored or released from food.

  • Both depend upon the interaction of biotic and abiotic factors.


Lesson 3 producers consumers decomposers

Lesson 3Producers, Consumers & Decomposers

  • All living things get the energy they need from food.

  • Different organisms have different food sources

    • Some make their own food

    • Some eat other living things

    • Some eat dead organisms

  • Depending upon what they eat, organisms are divided into three groups


Capturing the energy in light

Capturing the Energy in Light

  • All organisms need energy to carry out the functions of life.

  • Some organisms obtain this energy directly from sunlight.

  • Autotrophs use photosynthesis…..

    • Light Energy  Chemical Energy  stored as Organic Compounds (Carbohydrates)


Photoautotrophs

Photoautotrophs

Plants

Unicellular

protist

10 µm

Purple sulfur

bacteria

1.5 µm

Multicellular algae

Cyanobacteria

40 µm


Energy transfer1

Energy Transfer

Sun  Autotrophs  Heterotrophs

  • Producers

    • Capture energy and use it to make organic molecules.

    • Autotrophs

      • Plants, some protists, bacteria

      • Manufacture their own food

      • Most are photosynthetic (solar energy)

      • Some use Chemosynthesis

        • obtain energy from inorganic molecules


Producers

Producers

  • Make their own food using photosynthesis

    • Greek for “putting together with light”

    • Requires four things

      • Source of energy

      • Water

      • Carbon dioxide

      • Chlorophyll (pigment)

        • Stored in chloroplasts

        • Can absorb light from the sun

    • 6CO2 + 6H20  C6H12O6 + 6O2


Photosynthesis produces sugar

Photosynthesis Produces Sugar

  • Nearly all organisms depend on the process of photosynthesis as their energy source, either directly or indirectly.


Products of photosynthesis

Products of Photosynthesis

  • Green plants & algae can change the glucose into

    • Other sugars & starch

    • Complex molecules such as proteins & fats

  • Provide energy for the plant to grow

  • Some is stored in roots & vegetables

  • Oxygen (waste product); >50% comes from green plants in the ocean.


Chemosynthesis

Chemosynthesis

  • Some deep ocean and cave ecosystems do not rely on sunlight for energy

  • Nutrients are obtained from chemicals inside the earth

  • Chemosynthesis – process where bacteria and other life forms use chemicals to create nutrients.

  • They are also producers; use inorganic molecules to make their own food.


Energy transfer2

Energy Transfer

Sun  Autotrophs  Heterotrophs

  • Consumers

    • Cannot manufacture their own food.

    • Get energy by eating other organisms or organic wastes.

    • Heterotrophs

      • Animals, most protists, fungi & many bacteria

      • Obtain energy by consuming organic molecules made by other organisms.

      • Many different types; grouped by what they eat.


Heterotrophs

Heterotrophs

Sun  Autotrophs  Heterotrophs

  • Herbivores

    • Eat producers

      • Ex. Antelope eats grass

      • Ex. Zooplankton feed on phytoplankton

  • Carnivores

    • Eat other consumers

      • Ex. Lions, tigers, bald eagles, cobras, praying mantis

  • Omnivores

    • Eat producers & consumers

      • Ex. Grizzly bear (berries  salmon)


Heterotrophs1

Heterotrophs

Sun  Autotrophs  Heterotrophs

  • Detrivores

    • Feed on the ‘garbage’ of an ecosystem; such as organisms that have died, fallen leaves & animal wastes.

      • Ex. Vulture

  • Decomposers

    • Cause decay by breaking down the complex molecules in dead tissues and wastes into simpler molecules. (Ex. Bacteria, Fungi)

      • Some of these molecules are absorbed by decomposers

      • Some are returned to soil/water; avail. for autotrophs

    • Process of decomposition recycles chemical nutrients.


Lesson 4 energy flow in ecosystems

Lesson 4Energy Flow in Ecosystems

  • When one organism eats another, energy is transferred.

  • This transfer of energy through an ecosystem can be traced.

    • Helps scientists to see how organisms are connected by feeding relationships

    • Can also calculate how much energy is transferred


Food chains

Food Chains

  • Single pathway of feeding relationships among organisms in an ecosystem that results in energy transfer.

  • Shows the sequence of organisms that feed on each other.


Food chain

Food Chain

A food chain in the ocean begins with tiny one-celled organisms called diatoms. They make their own food from sunlight. Shrimplike creatures eat the diatoms. Small fish then eat the shrimplike creatures, and bigger fish eat the small fish.


Food webs

Food Web

Interrelated food chains in an ecosystem.

Many consumers eat more than one type of food.

More than one species may feed on same organism.

Many food chains interlink & resembles a web.

Food Webs


Quantity of energy transfers

Quantity of Energy Transfers

Energy Transfer

  • Only about 10% of the total energy consumed in one trophic level is available to the next level.

  • The other 90% is used by the organism for life’s processes

    • Maintain constant body temperature, Movement, Tissue repair & growth, Reproduction

  • Energy flow is one way; top level always smaller than lower levels.


The energy pyramid

The Energy Pyramid


Energy flow

Energy Flow

  • Most ecosystems only include 3-4 trophic levels.

    • 1st level – All Producers

    • 2nd level – Herbivores

    • 3rd – Predators of Herbivores

  • A trophic level is a feeding level in a food chain or web


Ecological pyramids

Ecological Pyramids

Energy Pyramid

Shows the relative amount of

energy available at each trophic

level. Organisms use about 10

percent of this

energy for

life processes.

The rest is lost

as heat.

Pyramid of Numbers

Shows the relative

number of individual

organisms at each

trophic level.

Biomass Pyramid

Represents the amount of

living organic matter at each

trophic level. Typically, the

greatest biomass is at the

base of the pyramid.


Short food chains

Short Food Chains

  • Low rate of energy transfer

    • Ecosystems rarely contain more than a few trophic levels.

  • Not enough energy at the highest levels

    • Higher levels contain less energy and therefore can support fewer individuals.

  • Organisms in lowest trophic level are usually more abundant

    • Ex. More grass, trees & shrubs than herbivores.

    • 1,000 zebras & gazelles  for every lion or leopard


Time for an activity

Time for an Activity!!!


Lesson 5 relationships within ecosystems

Lesson 5Relationships Within Ecosystems

  • Every living thing lives somewhere.

  • An organism’s habitat can be large

    • like the grasslands in Africa.

  • Habitats can also be small

    • like the inside of a sheep’s nostril.

  • The size depends upon

    • How big the organism is

    • How much space it needs


Ecological niche

Ecological Niche

  • Habitat - Set of environmental conditions in which a particular organism lives.

    • Ecological Niche

      • Description of role played by a species in a biological community.

      • Total set of environmental factors that determines species distribution.

        • Generalists - Broad niche

        • Specialists - Narrow niche


Ecological niche1

Ecological Niche

  • Generalists – eat a wide variety of food and live in a broad range of habitat. Ex. coyotes, raccoons

  • Specialists – occupy a very narrow niche; tend to be rarer than generalists and less resilient to disturbance or change. Ex. Panda


Ecological niche2

Ecological Niche

  • Resource Partitioning - Alter behavior or physiology to minimize competition.

    • Allows several species to utilize different parts of the same resource.


Ecological niche3

Ecological Niche


Resource partitioning

ResourcePartitioning

  • Competition

    • Occurs when two species compete for the same resources.

    • Can occur between individuals within same species or between different populations.

  • Some species can coexist in the same space (Ex. Bats & dragonflies competing for mosquitoes; have different niches)


Competition

Competition

  • Occurs when two species compete for the same resources.

  • Can occur between individuals within same species or between different populations.

  • Some species can coexist in the same space (Ex. Bats & dragonflies competing for mosquitoes; have different niches)


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