VULCANO 2008 – CONCLUDING REMARKS
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VULCANO 2008 – CONCLUDING REMARKS. ● canonical disclaimer ● some general remarks ● selected topics. ● UHECRs ● DM ● GRBs. ● nomination for the conference hit ● acknowledgements.

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Canonical disclaimer some general remarks selected topics

VULCANO 2008 – CONCLUDING REMARKS

● canonical disclaimer

● some general remarks

● selected topics

● UHECRs

● DM

● GRBs

● nomination for the conference hit

● acknowledgements


Canonical disclaimer some general remarks selected topics

As every year, the selection, based on personal impressions, will be arbitrary and unfair


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quotation from my Vulcano 2007 concluding remarks:

● we had an excellent conference

●we heard a lot of excellent talks

● some talks were clearly missing

e.g. ●status of HST & JWST

●highlights of SWIFT

(I hope that organizers of Vulcano 2008 will

rectify this deficiency)

AND THEY DID !


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UHECRs

Big news from AUGER!


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●Correlations of UHECR events with AGNs!

If events > 57 EeV with |b|>12o are considered, then 19 out of 21 are correlated (5 expected)

●GZK cut off confirmed !

●Composition of UHECRs: neither p nor Fe


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courtesy A. Letessier-Selvon


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(De Roeck, 2008)


Gzk cut off

courtesy A. Letessier-Selvon

GZK cut off

Maximum signal occurs @ same energy where the flux is reduced by 50% with respect to an extrapolated power law


C onclusions a letessier selvon

CONCLUSIONS (A. Letessier-Selvon)

It is just the beginning….

  • Anisotropy of UHECR has been established at > 99% CL for the parameters E~60 EeV, D~100 Mpc, ~4º

  • Nature of the correlation provides evidences for the ‘GZK’ effect and the hypothesis that the CR are dominantly protons from AGN within our ‘GZK’ horizon

  • Sources could be other than AGN as long as they have similar spatial distributions

  • Increased statistics (+Auger North) will allow source identification as well as measurements of MF along the line of sight and maybe some surprises….


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GOOD NEWS:

Dark matter exists !

Beautiful talks by:

●Sergio Colafrancesco

●many others


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gazeta wyborcza, 9.01.2007


Dm candidates

Gravitinos

Neutralinos

Sneutrinos

Axinos

Q-balls

Split-SUSY

DM candidates

“Fuzzy” CDM

Lower possible end of CDM

Bosons with M10-22 eV

Chaplygin Gas

DM-DE common origin

P = - A / r

Non-thermal production

m eV < Maxion < m eV

Experimental limits

Axions

Neutrinos

Warm DM 0.0005 < Wn h2< 0.0076

Massive neutrinos acceptable

Sterile n with mn  10-100 keV

Light (MeV) DM

Spin = 0 supersymmetric particle

1 MeV < MLDM < 4 MeV

Elusive: only e± 511 keV line

SUSY DM

Dark Matter

Kaluza-Klein excitations

L-KK (r-parity) particle: stable

MKK 1 TeV

Extra dimension

Branons

String theory brane fluctuations

Mbranon > 100 GeV

Mirror Matter

Ordinary matter in mirror world

Dissipative & complex chemics

WIMPzillas

Produced at the end of Inflation

M > 1013 GeV

MWIMP

PBHs

BHs @ quark-hadron transition

MPBH Mhorizon(T=102MeV) > M


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POPULAR DM CANDIDATES


Dm induced astro particle signals

DM induced astro-particle signals

Heating

Bremss.-ICS

UV/X-rays

SZE

sub-mm

c-c

annihilation

cc

annihilation

Synchrotron

Radio

g-rays

Neutrinos


Covering the whole e m spectrum

Covering the whole e.m. spectrum

cc

annihilation

products

ICS

SZ Effect

ICS

Brem.+ICS

Brem.+ICS+p0

Synchrotron


Dm annihilation in cosmic structures

DM annihilation in cosmic structures

Galaxies

(Optical)

Diffuse gas

(X-rays)

Relativistic particles

(Radio halos/relics)

Cluster

No gas

(No X-rays)

No rel. particles

(No radio emission)

Stars

(Optical)

dSph Galaxy


Sze in dm halos

SZE in DM halos

SZth

  • A structure with:

  • Hot gas

  • Warm gas

  • Rel. Plasma

  • DM

  • Distant & Vr

SZwarm

SZkin

SZrel

SZDM


Sze in pure dm halos

SZE in pure DM halos

  • A structure with:

  • DM

  • Nearby (Vr ≈ 0)

SZDM

Dwarf Spheroidal gal.


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1ES0657-556


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●It is fascinating that we could map so well so many possibilities

and that we may expect to obtain significant astrophysical constraints on DM particles


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The signal from DAMA (significant annual modulation) is very exciting

But, if interpreted as due to DM annihilation (model dependent) it seems to be too strong comparing with other astrophysical constraints

We have to be patient! [Vulcano 2006]

The last statement remains true atVulcano 2008


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GRBs

We live in a SWIFT era

Beautiful talks by:

●Lorenzo Amati

●Guido Chincarini

● many others


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●collimation

●cosmology & GRBs

●giant flares of distant magnetars


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How strong is the collimation ?

10-6 (DF, AD) or 10-2÷ 10-3 (common wisdom)

This translates into the frequency of the events (and also their energetics): is the fraction of SNe that are accompanied by GRBs≥ 10-1 or rather ~10-3?

New SWIFT data indicate that light curves breaks are not achromatic

→ common wisdom has a problem


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Collimation

●no evidence of achromatic breaks in light curves !

(they are chromatic or absent)

●Amati relation is alive and well (now based on 70 GRBs)

But

● Amati relation,corrected for beaming is no longer shown (too few GRBs with achromatic breaks – only ~ 10)

●There were people in this room (D. Fargione, A. Dar), who never believed achromatic breaks interpretation and advocated much stronger collimation (10-7÷ 10-6)


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  • Amati et al. (2002) analyzed a sample of 12 BeppoSAX events with known redshift

  • we found evidence of a strong correlation between Ep,i and Eiso, highly significant (r = 0.949, chance prob. 0.005%) despite the low number of GRBs included in the sample

Ep,i= kEiso

(0.52+/-0.06)

Amati et al. , A&A, 2002


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  • analysis of an updated sample of long GRBs/XRFs with firm estimates of z and Ep,i (41 events) gives a chance probability for the Ep,i-Eiso correlation of ~10-15 and a slope of 0.57+/-0.02

  • the scatter of the data around the best fit power-law can be fitted with a Gaussian with s(logEp,i) ~ 0.2 (~0.15 extra-poissonian)

  • confirmed by the most recent analysis (more than 70 events, Ghirlanda et al. 2008, Amati et al. 2008)

  • only firm outlier the local peculiar GRB 980425 (GRB 031203 debated)

Amati et al. 2008


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  • Recent Swift detection of an X-ray transient associated with SN 2008D at z = 0.0064, showing a light curve and duration similar to GRB 060218

  • Peak energy limits and energetics consistent with a very-low energy extension of the Ep,i-Eiso correlation

  • Evidence that this transient may be a very soft and weak GRB (XRF 080109), thus confirming the existence of a population of sub-energetic GRB ?

courtesy L. Amati

Modjaz et al., ApJ, 2008

Li, MNRAS, 2008


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courtesy L. Amati

  • Standardizing GRB with 3-parameters spectrum-energy correlations

  • the Ep,i-Eiso correlation becomes tighter when adding a third observable: jet opening angle (qjet -> Eg = [1-cos(qjet)]*Eiso (Ghirlanda et al. 2004) or “high signal time” T0.45 (Firmani et al. 2006)

  • the logarithmic dispersion of these correlations is very low: can they be used to standardize GRB ?

  • jet angle inferred from break time in optical afterglow decay, while Ep,i-Eiso-T0.45 correlation based on prompt emission properties only


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courtesy L. Amati

  • Collimated or isotropic ?

  • lack of jet breaks in several Swift X-ray afterglow light curves, in some cases, evidence of achromatic break

  • challenging evidences for Jet interpretation of break in afterglow light curves or due to present inadequate sampling of optical light curves w/r to X-ray ones and to lack of satisfactory modeling of jets ?


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Collimated or isotropic ?

●Unusual burst GRB080319B

●Possible interpretation: double jet (G. Chincarini)

inner jet:opening angle≈ 0.4o

outer jet:opening angle ≈ 8o

The collimation factor for inner jet is~ 2x10-6 !!!


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●cosmology & GRBs


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  • What can be obtained with 150 GRB with known z and Ep and complementarity with other probes (SN Ia, CMB)

  • complementary to SN Ia: extension to much higher z even when considering the future sample of SNAP (z < 1.7), cross check of results with different probes

Ghirlanda, Ghisellini et al. 2005, 2006,2007

courtesy L. Amati


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SHORT GRBs

●Large part (majority ?) of short GRBs are compact objects mergers

● Some of them must be giant outbursts of distant magnetars

Events such as Dec. 27, 2004 outburst of SGR 1806-20 (Eburst=3x1046 erg) must happen in nearby galaxies (they occur at a rate of ~ 0.1/yr in our Galaxy)

If they occur within ~ 100 Mpc, they have to be classified as short GRBs


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Candidates for giant outburst of distant magnetars (seen as short GRBs)

GRB 051103 (in M81) Eburst=7x1046 erg

GRB 070201 (in M31)Eburst=6x1046 erg


Grb051103 a possible extragalactic magnetar flare emf

GRB051103 – A POSSIBLE EXTRAGALACTIC MAGNETAR FLARE (EMF)

M82

Swift BAT

15-150 keV

Not imaged

M81

IPN Error

Ellipse


Grb070201 another emf

GRB070201 – ANOTHER EMF?

M31

IPN Error

Box

Eburst=6x1046 erg


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My nomination to the conference hit

goes this year to

Auger (early results) !


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In 2009 a silver jubilee !

(25 anniversary of the start of „Multifrequency …” workshop!)

SEE YOU AT VULCANO!


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