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Chapter 3 Windows NT 4.0 Workstation. Overview. Introduction to Windows NT Workstation 4.0. Installing Windows NT Workstation 4.0. Customizing and managing NT Workstation 4.0. Managing Windows NT Workstation security. NT boot-up process and creation of a startup disk.

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Overview

Chapter 3Windows NT 4.0 Workstation

Overview

  • Introduction to Windows NT Workstation 4.0.

  • Installing Windows NT Workstation 4.0.

  • Customizing and managing NT Workstation 4.0.

  • Managing Windows NT Workstation security.

  • NT boot-up process and creation of a startup disk.

  • Troubleshooting common Windows NT problems.

Introduction to Windows NT Workstation 4.0

  • Features of Windows NT.

  • Limitations of Windows NT.

  • Strengths of Windows NT.

  • Hardware and Windows NT Workstation 4.0.


Features of windows nt

Features of Windows NT

  • Desktop – Windows NT provides a better user interface and allows users to create a hierarchy of folders and shortcuts.

  • File system – NT 4.0 supports the FAT16 and (NTFS4)

  • Security - NT’s advanced file system protects files and folders by assigning permissions to individuals or groups.

  • Better Stability - NT 4.0 allows a user to work on different applications without the risk of data loss

  • Memory – The NT virtual memory manager allows more programs and data in memory.


Features of windows nt1

Features of Windows NT

Software compatibility:

  • NT 4.0 runs applications in environments called subsystems.

  • 32-bit Windows applications are the ‘native’ applications of Windows NT and run in the Win32 subsystem.

  • A DOS application in Windows runs within a virtual DOS machine (VDM).

  • NT 4.0 provides support for different types of applications by creating a simulated environment specific for the application.


Limitations of windows nt

Limitations of Windows NT

  • Hard drive limits - The Windows NT setup program can only create a maximum hard disk partition size of 4 GB.

  • Hardware support - NT does not support a variety of hardware and does not support the plug and play feature.

  • Software compatibility – A few DOS and 16-bit Windows-based applications do not work in NT’s simulated environment.

Strengths of Windows NT

  • Organizations use Windows NT 4.0 for backward compatibility.

  • An organization owning a license for Windows NT can continue to use the same license when old computers are replaced.


Hardware and nt workstation 4 0

Hardware and NT Workstation 4.0

  • Windows NT 4.0 Workstation can be installed on a computer that complies with the Intel/Microsoft set of standards.

  • Windows NT Workstation 4.0 supports symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) with two processors.

    Recommended hardware requirements for installing NT are:

    • Intel Pentium processor.

    • 128 MB of RAM.

    • 2 to 4 GB of hard disk space.

    • CD-ROM drive.

    • SVGA or higher resolution video adapter.

    • Microsoft mouse.

  • It is essential that the hardware and the software to be installed are both compatible with the operating system.

  • Users can refer to the Microsoft site to check the list of hardware & software that have passed MS compatibility tests.


  • Prerequisites for nt workstation 4 0 installation

    Prerequisites for NT Workstation 4.0 Installation

    • Ensure the system complies with hardware requirements, and the hardware is compatible with the operating system.

    • All the connections should be in place for the installed components.

    • Ensure device drivers required for the hardware are present.

    • A device driver is a small program that allows the operating system to interact with and control a hardware device.

    • Manual and automated are the two methods of installing NT.

    • Automated installation is used by organizations that need identical applications and desktop configurations on a large number of systems.

    • Automated installations and some manual installations use the WINNT.EXE or WINNT32.EXE program.


    Installing nt workstation 4 0

    Installing NT Workstation 4.0

    • The common Windows NT 4.0 installation strategy involves installing Windows NT 4.0 using the generic drivers.

    • A clean installation of the op-system is recommended.

      A clean installation in Windows NT refers to either:

      • Installing the operating system on a clean hard disk, or

      • Removing the old partitions and allowing setup to create a new partition, and formatting the same during the installation process.


    Post installation tasks

    Post-Installation Tasks

    Verifying network access:

    • Ensure that users requiring access to the LAN are able to connect to other resources on the network.

    • The Network Neighborhood window is used to display a list of computers visible on the network.

      Installing service packs:

    • The latest service pack must be tested before being installed.

    • The WINVER program can be used for determining information regarding the Windows version, license, amount of memory available, and the service pack level.


    Creating a new hard disk partition

    Creating a New Hard Disk Partition

    • A partition defines the boundaries on a hard disk.

    • Primary and extended are the two standard partition types.

    • A primary partition has a single drive letter assigned to the partition, while an extended partition has multiple logical drive letters.

    • Each area, defined as a drive letter, is a volume.

    • A hard disk can have a total of four partitions, but the number of extended partitions cannot exceed one.

    • The Disk Administrator tool is used for creating and managing disks in Windows NT.


    Installing and removing applications and windows components

    Installing and Removing Applications and Windows Components

    • Most applications come with their own installation programs.

    • The Add/Remove Programs applet in the Control panel can be used for installing and uninstalling applications and Windows components.


    Managing nt workstation security

    Managing NT Workstation Security

    • The NT operating system offers both, a local security database for authentication of users and the ability to set permissions on local files and folders.

    • Logons can be enforced only at the network level.

    • A hard disk can have a total of four partitions, but the number of extended partitions cannot exceed one.

    • The Disk Administrator tool is used for creating and managing disks in Windows NT.


    Managing users groups permissions and rights

    Managing Users, Groups, Permissions, and Rights

    • Security accounts in Windows NT include individual user accounts and group accounts that can contain multiple users.

    • User and group accounts are used to protect sensitive data.

    • In a workgroup, security accounts are on individual computers

    • In a domain, security accounts are contained in a centralized accounts database on special servers called domain controllers.


    Managing users groups permissions and rights1

    Managing Users, Groups, Permissions, and Rights

    Users and groups:

    • NT requires an authenticated logon with a valid username and password.

    • For easier administration, NT uses security groups to group user accounts.

    • Administrator and Guest are the two built-in user accounts that are created by default when Workstation is installed.

    • Windows NT Workstation, by default, creates the Administrators, Backup Operators, Guests, Power Users, Replicator, and Users built-in group accounts.


    Managing users groups permissions and rights2

    Managing Users, Groups, Permissions, and Rights

    Users and groups (continued):

    • All local user accounts automatically become members of the Users group.

    • The User Manager administrative program is used for creating and managing users and groups.

    • The Everyone group is a special default group, which includes all users on a network irrespective of their authentication.


    Managing users groups permissions and rights3

    Managing Users, Groups, Permissions, and Rights

    User rights:

    • A right is a privilege to perform system-wide functions.

    • In Windows NT, user rights can be viewed by opening User Manager and selecting User Rights from the Policies menu.


    Managing users groups permissions and rights4

    Managing Users, Groups, Permissions, and Rights

    Permissions:

    • Permissions define the actions that can be performed by a user on an object.

    • Each folder and file in a NTFS file system has a set of security permissions associated with it.

    • No Access, List, Read, Add, Add and Read, Change, and Full Control are the standard folder permissions.


    Managing users groups permissions and rights5

    Managing Users, Groups, Permissions, and Rights

    Planning for users, groups, and permissions:

    • Additional user accounts must be created if a Windows NT Workstation computer is to be used by more than one user.

    • A user must log on as a member of the Administrators group to create users or groups.


    Using and managing a local printer

    Using and Managing a Local Printer

    • A local printer can be used only after the printer driver is installed.

    • Only the Administrator or a member of the Administrators group can install a printer driver.

    Windows NT Startup Diskette

    • A Windows NT startup disk can be created by formatting a diskette in NT, and copying the files NTLDR, NTDETECT.COM, and BOOT.INI to the diskette.


    Nt system files and partitions

    NT System Files and Partitions

    • The NTLDR is a file that loads the operating system into the memory from the boot sector of the active partition.

    • The active partition in Windows NT is called the system partition.

    • NTLDR, NTDETECT.COM, BOOT.INI, and NTBOOTDD.SYS are the NT boot files, and they reside in the system partition.


    Nt system files and partitions1

    NT System Files and Partitions

    • The partition containing the system files is called the boot partition.

    • System files include the operating system kernel, the file containing the operating system settings from the registry, and the driver files.

    • The system files are installed into the WINNT\SYSTEM32 folder.


    Nt boot up process

    NT Boot-Up Process

    Boot-up process in NT is divided into the following stages:

    • Pre-boot sequence.

    • Boot sequence.

    • Load sequence.

    Pre-Boot Sequence

    • In the pre-boot sequence, the NTLDR is loaded into the memory.

    • A part of the instructions in the NTLDR are activated in this stage.


    Boot sequence

    Boot Sequence

    • In this stage, the NTLDR loads, switches the processor into the protected mode, and reads the BOOT.INI.

    • NTLDR loads and starts NTDETECT.COM, if ‘Windows NT Workstation Version 4.0’ is selected.

    • NTLDR also loads NTOSKRNL.EXE, HAL.DLL, and the system portion of the registry into the RAM.

    • NTLDR is also responsible for loading the drivers that are configured to load at boot time.


    Load sequence

    Load Sequence

    • The load sequence begins when NTLDR passes control to NTOSKRNL.EXE.

    • Windows NT gets loaded and initialized in this stage.

    • The load sequence has three phases – the kernel initialization phase, the services load phase, and the Windows system start phase.

    • The components NTOSKRNL.EXE and SMSS.EXE control the first two phases of the load sequence respectively.


    Troubleshooting common nt problems

    Troubleshooting Common NT Problems

    Registry:

    • The registry is a central place where NT stores all configuration settings for the operating system.

    • The REGEDIT.EXE and REGEDT32.EXE tools are used for viewing and modifying the registry as a hierarchical structure.

      Event Viewer:

    • System, application, and security are the three categories of events that can be logged in the Event Viewer.

    • The system log shows events involving the operating system components.

    • The application log shows events involving application.


    Troubleshooting common nt problems1

    Troubleshooting Common NT Problems

    • The Microsoft Web site and the Windows NT Help program provide help for troubleshooting problems with Win NT.

    • The defragmentation tool can be used to reorganize data on the hard disk, thereby increasing the speed of the computer.

    • Ensure that the contents of the TEMP folder and temporary Internet files are cleaned regularly.

    • The Windows NT backup program can be used to back up all valuable files, thereby preventing data loss.

    • The Windows NT startup disk can be used to resolve startup errors that occur while booting.


    Troubleshooting common nt problems2

    Troubleshooting Common NT Problems

    The Blue Screen Of Death (BSOD):

    • The BSOD is a blue character-mode screen that displays a message indicating a fatal error.

    • A bad driver can cause the BSOD during installation and during startup.

    • The BSOD problem can be solved by either reporting it to a computer support person or by researching on the stop code in the Microsoft’s Technet site.

    • The Recovery settings on the Startup/Shutdown tab of the System applet in the control panel can be used for configuring the behavior of the computer after a BSOD error.


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