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River Dynasties in China. Chapter 2 Section 4 pg. 46. Geography of China. Natural barriers isolate China from other civilizations East- Pacific Ocean West- Taklimakan desert Southwest- Himalaya Mountains North- Gobi Desert. Pacific Ocean, Taklimakan Desert, Himalayas, and Gobi Desert.

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River dynasties in china

River Dynasties in China

Chapter 2 Section 4 pg. 46


Geography of china
Geography of China

  • Natural barriers isolate China from other civilizations

  • East- Pacific Ocean

  • West- Taklimakan desert

  • Southwest- Himalaya Mountains

  • North- Gobi Desert



Rivers
Rivers

  • 2 major rivers flow from the mountains west to the Pacific Ocean

  • Huang He (hwahng-HUH) in the north

  • Yangtze (yang-SEE) in Central China




  • China’s 1 barbariansst civilization developed in a river valley- the Huang He means “yellow river”

  • Deposited huge amounts of yellow silt when it overflowed its banks

  • Silt is actually fertile soil called loess that is blown by wind from the desert




Civilization emerges in shang times
Civilization Emerges in Shang Times own goods rather than trading with people

  • Even before Sumerians settled in Mesopotamia, Chinese cultures building along the Huang He

  • Around 2000 B.C. turned into China’s first cities

  • China’s first Dynasty emerged at this time, the Xia (shyah) Dynasty


First dynasties
First Dynasties own goods rather than trading with people

  • Leader of Xia named Yu

  • Controlled flood and irrigation projects and helped tame Huang He and its tributaries so settlements could grow


Shang dynasty
Shang Dynasty own goods rather than trading with people

  • Lasted from 1532 to 1027 B.C.

  • First family to leave written records

  • Built elaborate tombs and palaces


  • Oldest and most important Shang city was Anyang own goods rather than trading with people

  • Built mostly of wood

  • Higher classes lived in timber-framed houses with walls of clay and straw

  • Surrounded cities with massive earthen walls for protection


Social classes
Social Classes own goods rather than trading with people

  • Divided between nobles and peasants

  • Governed by ruling class of warrior-nobles headed by a king

  • Professional warriors underwent lengthy training to learn the techniques of driving and shooting from horse-drawn chariots

  • Chariot was a major tool of war


Origins of chinese culture
Origins of Chinese Culture own goods rather than trading with people

  • People very loyal to 2 important authorities- their family and their king or emperor

  • Family was central to Chinese society

  • Important aspect was respecting parents

  • Elder men in family controlled property and made all decisions

  • Women treated as inferiors, expected to obey husband, father, and eventually own sons.



Religious beliefs
Religious beliefs into house with husband

  • Believed that spirits of family ancestors could bring good fortune or disaster

  • Didn’t treat them as gods, but gave them respect

  • Worshiped a supreme god, Shang Di as well as many lesser gods



Kinda like a magic eight ball
…kinda like a Magic Eight Ball bones and tortoise shells on which a priest would scratch questions for the gods, then a priest applied a hot poker to it causing it to crack


Real oracle bones
Real Oracle Bones bones and tortoise shells on which a priest would scratch questions for the gods, then a priest applied a hot poker to it causing it to crack


Development of writing
Development of Writing bones and tortoise shells on which a priest would scratch questions for the gods, then a priest applied a hot poker to it causing it to crack

  • Chinese method of writing each character stands for an idea, not a sound

  • Advantage: people in China could learn the same system of writing even if languages were very different

  • Disadvantage: enormous amount of written characters

  • Person needed to know over 1,000 characters to barely be literate, a true scholar needed to know 10,000 characters


Shang technology and artistry
Shang technology and Artistry bones and tortoise shells on which a priest would scratch questions for the gods, then a priest applied a hot poker to it causing it to crack

  • People who were skilled in crafts made up a separate class in society

  • Like other commoners, they lived outside the walls of cities

  • Made weapons, jewelry, religious items

  • Could also make silk cloth 1000 years before Europe and the rest of world could


Zhou bring new ideas
Zhou Bring New Ideas bones and tortoise shells on which a priest would scratch questions for the gods, then a priest applied a hot poker to it causing it to crack

  • 1027 B.C. people called Zhou (joh) overthrew Shang and established own dynasty, and adopted much of Shang culture

  • Justified takeover by declaring Shang King was such a bad leader that the gods had taken away the power and given it to the Zhou



Mandate of heaven dynastic cycle in china
Mandate of Heaven Dynastic Cycle in China royal authority came from heaven



Control through feudalism
Control through feudalism ancestral spirits were unhappy with a king’s rule

  • Zhou dynasty controlled large amounts of land, governing the area became a challenge

  • Gave different regions of land to different royal family members and trusted nobles

  • Established system of feudalism


Feudalism
Feudalism ancestral spirits were unhappy with a king’s rule

  • Political system where nobles, or lords, are granted the use of lands that legally belong to the king

  • The nobles owe loyalty and military service to the king and protection to the people who love on the estates



Improvements in trade and technology by the zhou
Improvements in Trade and Technology by the Zhou cities and expanded into neighboring territory

  • The Zhou built roads and canals to supply growing cities

  • This stimulated trade and agriculture

  • Introduced coined money

  • Developed blast furnaces that allowed them to produce cast iron 1,000 years before Europeans

  • Used iron to create weapons and tools


Ancient blast furnace
Ancient Blast Furnace cities and expanded into neighboring territory


Modern blast furnace
Modern Blast Furnace cities and expanded into neighboring territory


Warring states
Warring States cities and expanded into neighboring territory

  • The Zhou ruled from 1027 to 256 B.C.

  • Nomads from the north invaded and murdered the Zhou monarch

  • Surviving members moved capital to Luoyang (lwoh-YAHNG) and pretended to rule for another 500 years

  • Lords claimed to be kings in own territory, and traditional values collapsed


Assignment
Assignment: cities and expanded into neighboring territory

  • On your note sheet, create your own writing system using only characters for this sentence:

  • After school, students do homework, practice sports, or play video games.


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