25 1 vibrations of a pendulum
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25.1 – vibrations of a pendulum. Period of oscillation only depends upon: Length of pendulum Acceleration of gravity Independent of mass Shorter = swings more often = higher frequency Example of simple harmonic motion (SHM). Masses on springs (honors). Masses on spring also exhibit SHM

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25.1 – vibrations of a pendulum

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25 1 vibrations of a pendulum

25.1 – vibrations of a pendulum

  • Period of oscillation only depends upon:

    • Length of pendulum

    • Acceleration of gravity

  • Independent of mass

  • Shorter = swings more often = higher frequency

  • Example of simple harmonic motion (SHM)


Masses on springs honors

Masses on springs (honors)

  • Masses on spring also exhibit SHM

  • Restoring force α distance from equilibrium

  • Bigger k = stiffer spring

  • Oscillating spring systems only depend upon:

    • Mass at end of spring

    • Spring constant


25 2 wave description

25.2 – wave description

  • Vibrations are what produces waves

    • Looks like a sine wave

  • # of cycles (vibrations) per second = frequency (f)

    • Unit: s-1 = hertz (Hz)

    • Period (T) = time for 1 cycle


25 3 wave motion

25.3 – wave motion

  • Waves transfer energy not matter

    • Only temporary motion of matter

    • No matter is transmitted between 2 points

    • The matter “bangs” into matter next to it, giving it energy


25 4 wave speed

25.4 – wave speed

  • Depends upon medium

  • Can be calculated as the distance a crests moves in a certain time

  • Fundamental relationship between: speed, wavelength & frequency

  • For the same type of wave – speed is the same

    • λ & f are inverses of one another


25 5 25 6 transverse longitudinal waves

25.5 & 25.6 – transverse & longitudinal waves

  • Wave pulse is perpendicular (across) from the direction of travel

    • EM waves need no medium to travel

  • Oscillation is back and forth in the direction of wave travel

    • Sound waves


Electromagnetic waves

Electromagnetic waves

  • A self propagation of E & B fields

    • As one changes, so must the other

    • Moves at the speed of light, c = 3.00 x 108 m/s

    • Caused because of accelerating electric charges


25 1 vibrations of a pendulum

  • Vibrations determine the frequency of EM waves

    • Visible light is just a sliver of EM spectrum

    • Includes: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays

    • In order of increasing energy


25 7 interference

25.7 - interference

  • When waves meet and overlap

  • Constructive interference

    • Waves meet & amplitude gets larger

  • Destructive interference

    • Amplitude gets smaller

  • When wave crests exactly line up – in phase

    • Not common

  • Out of phase when crest & trough overlap

    • Creates dark bands


25 8 standing waves

25.8 – standing waves

  • Waves generated have locations that appear to not move

  • Parts of wave that appear stationary – nodes

    • Complete destructive interference

    • Next to these are locations of maximum amplitude – antinodes – constructive int.

  • As waves meet, they interfere and then pass through one another

  • Higher frequency generate more standing waves


25 9 doppler effect

25.9 – doppler effect

  • The apparent change in frequency due to motion of source or observer

    • Waves move in all directions at same speed

    • Source moving “bunches up” waves in direction of motion & “spreads out” behind


25 1 vibrations of a pendulum

  • Frequency is higher in direction of motion – a higher pitch

  • Occurs for all waves – sound & light

    • Blue shift – object towards us

    • Red shift - away


25 10 bow waves

25.10 – bow waves

  • Bow waves occur when wave source moves faster than the waves produced


25 11 shock waves

25.11 – shock waves

  • Shock waves are produced when object is faster than speed of sound

  • Caused because of constructive interference

  • Creates a conical shell of compressed air

  • This is the sonic boom

  • Always carried with plane (object) going ≥ vsound


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