Unit 2 ancient civilization
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Unit 2 – Ancient Civilization. Review from Unit 1 – What is the Fertile Crescent? Mesopotamia – Greek for what? Why was this land ideal for farming? Why was this land often not ideal for farming? How were people able to control their water resources?. Sumer.

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Unit 2 – Ancient Civilization

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Unit 2 ancient civilization

Unit 2 – Ancient Civilization

  • Review from Unit 1 – What is the Fertile Crescent?

  • Mesopotamia – Greek for what?

  • Why was this land ideal for farming?

  • Why was this land often not ideal for farming?

  • How were people able to control their water resources?


Sumer

Sumer

  • As cities grew, city-states were formed, creating local governments

  • What kind of religion was now being practiced? People worked very hard to please the Gods

  • Warriors and war

    chiefs began to rule,

    creating dynasties.


Sumerian culture

Sumerian Culture

  • What was it and how were Sumerians using cuneiform? Could everyone write?

  • Has anyone read the Epic of Gilgamesh?

  • We use Sumerian concepts even TODAY!

  • 60, the wheel, the plow, basic surgery

  • The people of Sumer used trade as their primary resource for raw materials


The empires

The Empires

  • Akkadia

  • The worlds’ first empire

  • Where was it? And who ruled?

  • Adopted many Sumerian practices

  • What was the fate of Akkadia?

  • Babylonia – Hammurabi

  • Where? When? Who ruled?

  • Many Sumerian rituals and beliefs were honored in Babylon

  • What was the fate of the Babylonia Empire?


Code of hammurabi project

Code of Hammurabi Project

  • A devastating world-wide disaster has occurred, wiping out all of mankind...

  • We will create a NEW Code of Hammurabi

  • Groups of three or four

  • Choose ONE code from your selection and explain why it will be part of our New Code

  • Short presentation tomorrow

  • Please work quietly until the end of class


Mesopotamian empires

Mesopotamian Empires

  • What happened to Babylon?

  • The Hittites

  • Indo-European war tribe

  • 3,000 years ago in Asia Minor (modern day Turkey)

  • Military and cultural advances...

    - When did this empire fall???


Mesopotamian empires cont

Mesopotamian Empires cont...

  • The Assyrians

  • What was life like before they were a dynasty?

  • Around 900 BC they took over all of Mesopotamia, Asia Minor and parts of Egypt

  • “The War Machine” relied on what to dominate the region? What/when/why was their downfall?

    - The Assyrians were ruthless and brutal, however were responsible for many cultural advances...


Mesopotamian empires cont1

Mesopotamian Empires cont...

  • The Chaldeans

  • Babylon became their new capitol

  • Nebuchdnezzar II was their most famous Warrior King

  • What areas did they capture and make their own?

  • How long did this empire last?


Mesopotamian empires cont2

Mesopotamian Empires cont...

  • The Phoenicians

  • Western Asia: Sidon and Tyre (present day Lebanon)

  • Trade was THEIR THING

  • Were excellent sailors, dominating trade in the Mediterranean

  • Started settlements along their trade routes

    > Carthage

  • Lumber, dye, glass, ivory, silver and slaves

  • The Phoenician Alphabet

    > 22 letters (no vowels)

    > The modern day alphabet is an adaptation of the modified Greek alphabet


The phoenicians

The Phoenicians


The hebrews

The Hebrews

  • Ancestors of the Jews, 2000-1500 BC

  • Judaism, Hebrew religion

  • Early history can be found in the Torah AKA the Old Testament of the Bible

  • Abraham, was given a covenant by God, in return for him leading his people to a Promised Land (AKA Canaan)

  • Jacob, Abraham’s grandson, began what was known to be the Israelites

  • Abraham, Isaac and Jacob were patriarchs

  • After leaving Canaan for Egypt, the Pharaoh would make the Israelites into slaves


Moses and the exodus

Moses and the Exodus

  • Moses, an Egyptian Israelite, has God speak to him

  • God demanded he lead the Israelites out of Egypt

  • God casts down plagues on Egypt to free to the Israelites

  • Moses leads the Jews on a journey called the Exodus (celebrated today during Passover)

  • After wandering in the desert for years, the Jews find Mount Sinai, where Moses is given the Ten Commandments

    - After Sinai, the Jews would fight for years and years to gain back Canaan, eventually getting it back, the land was then renamed, Israel


The 10 commandments

The 10 Commandments


Israel

Israel

  • What was life like in Canaan?

  • No government, judges, farmers, continued faith

  • Saul – The first King of Israel

  • David – The second King of Israel

  • Israelites are now united, growing and centered around Jerusalem

  • Solomon – The third King of Israel

  • Oversees the height of Israeli life, wealth and power

  • What happens to Israel following the death of Solomon?


Israel cont

Israel cont...

  • Israel and Judah

  • Who’s who? Kingdom of Judah AKA the JEWS

    > 10 northern tribes and two southern tribes

  • Israel falls to the Assyrians, Judah falls to the Chaldeans (circa 722 BC)

    > The Jews are enslaved for 50 years AKA Diaspora

  • Persia takes the Chaldeans, allowing the Jews to return home (some do, some don’t)

  • Judaism – Religion is the foundation

  • Monotheism, worship of ONE God

  • Justice and Righteousness

  • Obedience to the Law (think, Ten Commandments)

  • Texts: Torah, Prophets, Writings and the Talmud


The persian empire 550 350 bc

The Persian Empire (550-350 BC)

  • The Persian Empire was a giant empire that arose in Southwest Asia that was built upon tolerance and a wise government. (Unlike the Assyrians)

  • In 550 B.C., Persian King Cyrus defeated several neighboring kingdoms to mark the beginning of the Persian Empire.

    • In 11 years (550-539 B.C.) Cyrus conquered all of the Fertile Crescent and most of Asia minor.

    • Cyrus believed that when his army marched into a defeated city, that there would be no looting or destroying of any buildings/temples.

    • Cyrus believed that it was wise leave local customs and religions alone.

      http://www.spentaproductions.com/cyruspreview.htm


Persia cont

Persia cont...

  • King Cyrus was killed in 530 B.C. and then his son, Cambyses, took over for 8 years. Cambyses died of a wound suffered by a sword.

  • Cambyses successor was Darius who governed the fragile empire by using absolute power.

    • Darius used two important tools to hold the empire together.

      > Excellent Road System called the “Royal Road System”

      > Standardized Coinage: The whole empire had a universal money system to trade with.


The royal road system

The Royal Road System

“The Royal Road”

- 1,677 miles

- Took a caravan 3 months to travel this distance.


Zoroaster

Zoroaster

  • Who was this man?

  • Is Zoroastrianism like any other religion?

  • Ahura is like... Ahriman is like...

  • Dualism is like...

  • Avesta was the teachings of Zoroaster

  • The Greeks all but end the religion

  • The Persian Empire was dialed in

  • The Royal Road enhanced communication throughout the vast empire

  • Art, animals and gold added to Persian culture

  • Persepolis – ceremonial city designed by Darius

  • The Persian Empire was one of PEACE


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