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Phrase structure analyses in traditional transformational grammar:. [ S I forced him [ S PRO to be kind]]. Phrase structure analyses in traditional transformational grammar:. [ S I forced him [ S PRO to be kind]] [ S I believed [ S him to be kind]].

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Phrase structure analyses in traditional transformational grammar:

[S I forced him [S PRO to be kind]]

slide2

Phrase structure analyses in traditional transformational grammar:

[S I forced him [S PRO to be kind]]

[S I believed [S him to be kind]]

slide3

Phrase structure analyses in traditional transformational grammar:

[S I forced him [S PRO to be kind]]

[S I believed [S him to be kind]]

[S NP seems [S John to shout]]

slide4

Phrase structure analyses in traditional transformational grammar:

[S I forced him [S PRO to be kind]]

[S I believed [S him to be kind]]

[S NP seems [S John to shout]]

[S NP tends [S John to shout]]

slide5

Phrase structure analyses in traditional transformational grammar:

[S I forced him [S PRO to be kind]]

[S I believed [S him to be kind]]

[S NP seems [S John to shout]]

[S NP tends [S John to shout]]

[S Bill [VP killed John]]

slide6

Phrase structure analyses in traditional transformational grammar:

[S I forced him [S PRO to be kind]]

[S I believed [S him to be kind]]

[S NP seems [S John to shout]]

[S NP tends [S John to shout]]

[S Bill [VP killed John]]

[S NP [VP was killed John]]

slide7

Phrase structure analyses in traditional transformational grammar:

[S I forced him [S PRO to be kind]]

[S I believed [S him to be kind]]

[S NP seems [S John to shout]]

[S NP tends [S John to shout]]

[S Bill [VP killed John]]

[S NP [VP was killed John]]

1. [S I forced him [VP\' to be kind]]

Phrase structure analyses in Lexical Functional Grammar:

slide8

Phrase structure analyses in traditional transformational grammar:

[S I forced him [S PRO to be kind]]

[S I believed [S him to be kind]]

[S NP seems [S John to shout]]

[S NP tends [S John to shout]]

[S Bill [VP killed John]]

[S NP [VP was killed John]]

1. [S I forced him [VP\' to be kind]]

2. [S I believed him [VP\' to be kind]]

Phrase structure analyses in Lexical Functional Grammar:

slide9

Phrase structure analyses in traditional transformational grammar:

[S I forced him [S PRO to be kind]]

[S I believed [S him to be kind]]

[S NP seems [S John to shout]]

[S NP tends [S John to shout]]

[S Bill [VP killed John]]

[S NP [VP was killed John]]

1. [S I forced him [VP\' to be kind]]

2. [S I believed him [VP\' to be kind]]

4. [S John tends [VP\' to shout]]

Phrase structure analyses in Lexical Functional Grammar:

slide10

Phrase structure analyses in traditional transformational grammar:

[S I forced him [S PRO to be kind]]

[S I believed [S him to be kind]]

[S NP seems [S John to shout]]

[S NP tends [S John to shout]]

[S Bill [VP killed John]]

[S NP [VP was killed John]]

1. [S I forced him [VP\' to be kind]]

2. [S I believed him [VP\' to be kind]]

4. [S John tends [VP\' to shout]]

6. [S John [VP\' was killed]]

Phrase structure analyses in Lexical Functional Grammar:

slide11

Phrase structure analyses in traditional transformational grammar:

[S I forced him [S PRO to be kind]]

[S I believed [S him to be kind]]

[S NP seems [S John to shout]]

[S NP tends [S John to shout]]

[S Bill [VP killed John]]

[S NP [VP was killed John]]

1. [S I forced him [VP\' to be kind]]

2. [S I believed him [VP\' to be kind]]

4. [S John tends [VP\' to shout]]

6. [S John [VP\' was killed]]

Phrase structure analyses in Lexical Functional Grammar:

How does LFG capture

slide12

Phrase structure analyses in traditional transformational grammar:

[S I forced him [S PRO to be kind]]

[S I believed [S him to be kind]]

[S NP seems [S John to shout]]

[S NP tends [S John to shout]]

[S Bill [VP killed John]]

[S NP [VP was killed John]]

1. [S I forced him [VP\' to be kind]]

2. [S I believed him [VP\' to be kind]]

4. [S John tends [VP\' to shout]]

6. [S John [VP\' was killed]]

Phrase structure analyses in Lexical Functional Grammar:

  • How does LFG capture
  • the difference between 1 and 2,
slide13

Phrase structure analyses in traditional transformational grammar:

[S I forced him [S PRO to be kind]]

[S I believed [S him to be kind]]

[S NP seems [S John to shout]]

[S NP tends [S John to shout]]

[S Bill [VP killed John]]

[S NP [VP was killed John]]

1. [S I forced him [VP\' to be kind]]

2. [S I believed him [VP\' to be kind]]

4. [S John tends [VP\' to shout]]

6. [S John [VP\' was killed]]

Phrase structure analyses in Lexical Functional Grammar:

  • How does LFG capture
  • the difference between 1 and 2,
  • the non-argument status of the subject of 4,
slide14

Phrase structure analyses in traditional transformational grammar:

[S I forced him [S PRO to be kind]]

[S I believed [S him to be kind]]

[S NP seems [S John to shout]]

[S NP tends [S John to shout]]

[S Bill [VP killed John]]

[S NP [VP was killed John]]

1. [S I forced him [VP\' to be kind]]

2. [S I believed him [VP\' to be kind]]

4. [S John tends [VP\' to shout]]

6. [S John [VP\' was killed]]

Phrase structure analyses in Lexical Functional Grammar:

  • How does LFG capture
  • the difference between 1 and 2,
  • the non-argument status of the subject of 4,
  • and the semantic role of the subject of 6?
slide15

Phrase structure analyses in traditional transformational grammar:

[S I forced him [S PRO to be kind]]

[S I believed [S him to be kind]]

[S NP seems [S John to shout]]

[S NP tends [S John to shout]]

[S Bill [VP killed John]]

[S NP [VP was killed John]]

1. [S I forced him [VP\' to be kind]]

2. [S I believed him [VP\' to be kind]]

4. [S John tends [VP\' to shout]]

6. [S John [VP\' was killed]]

Phrase structure analyses in Lexical Functional Grammar:

  • How does LFG capture
  • the difference between 1 and 2,
  • the non-argument status of the subject of 4,
  • and the semantic role of the subject of 6?
  • Answer: Don’t operate on the trees,
  • but annotate them with relevant information
  • about syntactic functions and semantic arguments.
slide16

S

VP

NP

I

VP\'

V

NP

forced

him

TO

VP

to

V

AP

be

kind

slide17

S

S

VP

NP

VP

I

NP

I

VP\'

V

NP

forced

him

VP\'

V

NP

believed

him

TO

VP

to

TO

VP

to

V

AP

be

kind

V

AP

be

kind

slide18

S

S

VP

NP

VP

I

NP

I

VP\'

V

NP

forced

him

VP\'

V

NP

believed

him

TO

VP

to

TO

VP

to

V

AP

S

be

kind

V

AP

be

kind

VP

NP

John

V

VP\'

tends

TO

VP

to

V

shout

slide19

S

S

VP

NP

VP

I

NP

I

VP\'

V

NP

forced

him

VP\'

V

NP

believed

him

TO

VP

to

TO

VP

to

V

AP

S

be

kind

S

V

AP

be

kind

VP

NP

VP

NP

John

John

V

V

VP\'

tends

VP

was

TO

VP

V

PP

to

killed

V

P

NP

shout

by

Bill

slide20

S

S

SUBJ

VP

NP

VP

I

NP

OBJ

XCOMP

I

VP\'

V

NP

forced

him

VP\'

V

NP

PRET

believed

him

’FORCE ‹SUBJ OBJ XCOMP›’

TO

VP

to

TO

VP

to

V

AP

S

be

kind

S

V

AP

INF

be

kind

VP

NP

VP

NP

John

John

V

V

VP\'

tends

VP

was

TO

VP

V

PP

to

killed

V

P

NP

shout

by

Bill

slide21

S

S

SUBJ

VP

NP

SUBJ

VP

I

NP

OBJ

XCOMP

I

VP\'

V

NP

OBJ

XCOMP

forced

him

VP\'

V

NP

PRET

believed

him

’FORCE ‹SUBJ OBJ XCOMP›’

PRET

TO

VP

BELIEVE ‹SUBJ XCOMP› OBJ’

to

TO

VP

to

V

AP

S

be

kind

S

V

AP

INF

be

kind

INF

VP

NP

VP

NP

John

John

V

V

VP\'

tends

VP

was

TO

VP

V

PP

to

killed

V

P

NP

shout

by

Bill

slide22

S

S

SUBJ

VP

NP

SUBJ

VP

I

NP

OBJ

XCOMP

I

VP\'

V

NP

OBJ

XCOMP

forced

him

VP\'

V

NP

PRET

believed

him

’FORCE ‹SUBJ OBJ XCOMP›’

PRET

TO

VP

BELIEVE ‹SUBJ XCOMP› OBJ’

to

TO

VP

to

V

AP

S

be

kind

S

V

AP

INF

be

kind

SUBJ

INF

VP

NP

VP

NP

John

John

XCOMP

V

V

VP\'

tends

VP

was

PRES

TEND ‹XCOMP› SUBJ’

TO

VP

V

PP

to

killed

V

P

NP

shout

by

Bill

INF

slide23

S

S

SUBJ

VP

NP

SUBJ

VP

I

NP

OBJ

XCOMP

I

VP\'

V

NP

OBJ

XCOMP

forced

him

VP\'

V

NP

PRET

believed

him

’FORCE ‹SUBJ OBJ XCOMP›’

PRET

TO

VP

BELIEVE ‹SUBJ XCOMP› OBJ’

to

TO

VP

to

V

AP

S

be

kind

S

V

AP

INF

be

kind

SUBJ

INF

SUBJ

VP

NP

VP

NP

John

John

XCOMP

V

V

VP\'

tends

VP

was

PRES

TEND ‹XCOMP› SUBJ’

OBLag

TO

VP

V

PP

to

killed

KILL ‹OBLag SUBJ›’

V

P

NP

shout

by

Bill

INF

slide24

The functional information in the annotations

is represented in a separate functional structure

(f-structure), in the form of an attribute-value graph:

slide25

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

f1

PRED ’I’

SUBJ

CASE nom

TENSE pret

PRED ’FORCE‹ SUBJOBJXCOMP ›’

f5

PRED ’HE’

CASE obl

NUM sg

OBJ

f6

SUBJ

PRED ’LEAVE‹ SUBJ › ’

XCOMP

slide26

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

f1

PRED ’I’

SUBJ

CASE nom

TENSE pret

PRED ’FORCE‹ SUBJOBJXCOMP ›’

f5

PRED ’HE’

CASE obl

NUM sg

OBJ

f6

SUBJ

PRED ’LEAVE‹ SUBJ › ’

XCOMP

slide27

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

f1

PRED ’I’

SUBJ

CASE nom

TENSE pret

PRED ’FORCE‹ SUBJOBJXCOMP ›’

f5

PRED ’HE’

CASE obl

NUM sg

OBJ

f6

SUBJ

PRED ’LEAVE‹ SUBJ › ’

XCOMP

slide28

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

f1

PRED ’I’

SUBJ

CASE nom

TENSE pret

PRED ’FORCE‹ SUBJOBJXCOMP ›’

f5

PRED ’HE’

CASE obl

NUM sg

OBJ

f6

SUBJ

PRED ’LEAVE‹ SUBJ › ’

XCOMP

slide29

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

f1

PRED ’I’

SUBJ

CASE nom

TENSE pret

PRED ’FORCE‹ SUBJOBJXCOMP ›’

f5

PRED ’HE’

CASE obl

NUM sg

OBJ

f6

SUBJ

PRED ’LEAVE‹ SUBJ › ’

XCOMP

slide30

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

f1

PRED ’I’

SUBJ

Describing parts of the structure

by means of equations

CASE nom

TENSE pret

PRED ’FORCE‹ SUBJOBJXCOMP ›’

f5

PRED ’HE’

CASE obl

NUM sg

OBJ

f6

SUBJ

PRED ’LEAVE‹ SUBJ › ’

XCOMP

slide31

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

f1

PRED ’I’

SUBJ

Describing parts of the structure

by means of equations

f1 (TENSE) = pret

CASE nom

TENSE pret

PRED ’FORCE‹ SUBJOBJXCOMP ›’

f5

PRED ’HE’

CASE obl

NUM sg

OBJ

f6

SUBJ

PRED ’LEAVE‹ SUBJ › ’

XCOMP

slide32

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

f1

PRED ’I’

SUBJ

Describing parts of the structure

by means of equations

f1 (TENSE) = pret

f1 (SUBJ) = f2

CASE nom

TENSE pret

PRED ’FORCE‹ SUBJOBJXCOMP ›’

f5

PRED ’HE’

CASE obl

NUM sg

OBJ

f6

SUBJ

PRED ’LEAVE‹ SUBJ › ’

XCOMP

slide33

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

f1

PRED ’I’

SUBJ

Describing parts of the structure

by means of equations

f1 (TENSE) = pret

f1 (SUBJ) = f2

f2 (CASE) = nom

CASE nom

TENSE pret

PRED ’FORCE‹ SUBJOBJXCOMP ›’

f5

PRED ’HE’

CASE obl

NUM sg

OBJ

f6

SUBJ

PRED ’LEAVE‹ SUBJ › ’

XCOMP

slide34

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

f1

PRED ’I’

SUBJ

Describing parts of the structure

by means of equations

f1 (TENSE) = pret

f1 (SUBJ) = f2

f2 (CASE) = nom

f1 (SUBJ)(CASE) = nom

CASE nom

TENSE pret

PRED ’FORCE‹ SUBJOBJXCOMP ›’

f5

PRED ’HE’

CASE obl

NUM sg

OBJ

f6

SUBJ

PRED ’LEAVE‹ SUBJ › ’

XCOMP

slide35

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

f1

PRED ’I’

SUBJ

Describing parts of the structure

by means of equations

f1 (TENSE) = pret

f1 (SUBJ) = f2

f2 (CASE) = nom

f1 (SUBJ)(CASE) = nom

f2

CASE nom

TENSE pret

PRED ’FORCE‹ SUBJOBJXCOMP ›’

f5

PRED ’HE’

CASE obl

NUM sg

OBJ

f6

SUBJ

PRED ’LEAVE‹ SUBJ › ’

XCOMP

slide36

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

f1

PRED ’I’

SUBJ

Describing parts of the structure

by means of equations

f1 (TENSE) = pret

f1 (SUBJ) = f2

f2 (CASE) = nom

f1 (SUBJ)(CASE) = nom

f2

Alternative notation:

(f1 TENSE) = pret

(f1 SUBJ) = f2

(f2 CASE) = nom

(f1 SUBJ CASE) = nom

CASE nom

TENSE pret

PRED ’FORCE‹ SUBJOBJXCOMP ›’

f5

PRED ’HE’

CASE obl

NUM sg

OBJ

f6

SUBJ

PRED ’LEAVE‹ SUBJ › ’

XCOMP

slide37

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

f1

PRED ’I’

SUBJ

Describing parts of the structure

by means of equations

f1 (TENSE) = pret

f1 (SUBJ) = f2

f2 (CASE) = nom

f1 (SUBJ)(CASE) = nom

f2

Alternative notation:

(f1 TENSE) = pret

(f1 SUBJ) = f2

(f2 CASE) = nom

(f1 SUBJ CASE) = nom

CASE nom

TENSE pret

PRED ’FORCE‹ SUBJOBJXCOMP ›’

f5

PRED ’HE’

CASE obl

NUM sg

OBJ

f6

SUBJ

PRED ’LEAVE‹ SUBJ › ’

XCOMP

(f1 OBJ) = (f1 XCOMP SUBJ)

slide38

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

f1

PRED ’I’

SUBJ

Describing parts of the structure

by means of equations

f1 (TENSE) = pret

f1 (SUBJ) = f2

f2 (CASE) = nom

f1 (SUBJ)(CASE) = nom

f2

Alternative notation:

(f1 TENSE) = pret

(f1 SUBJ) = f2

(f2 CASE) = nom

(f1 SUBJ CASE) = nom

CASE nom

TENSE pret

PRED ’FORCE‹ SUBJOBJXCOMP ›’

f5

PRED ’HE’

CASE obl

NUM sg

OBJ

f6

SUBJ

PRED ’LEAVE‹ SUBJ › ’

XCOMP

(f1 OBJ) = (f1 XCOMP SUBJ)

slide40

S -> NP VP

VP -> V (NP) (VP\')

slide41

( SUBJ)

( OBJ)





( XCOMP)

S -> NP VP

VP -> V (NP) (VP\')

slide42

( SUBJ)

( OBJ)





( XCOMP)

S -> NP VP

VP -> V (NP) (VP\')

forced:( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

slide43

( SUBJ)

( OBJ)





( XCOMP)

S -> NP VP

VP -> V (NP) (VP\')

forced:( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

S

VP

NP

I

V

NP

VP\'

him

forced

to leave

slide44

( SUBJ)

( OBJ)

( SUBJ)

( OBJ)









( XCOMP)

( XCOMP)

S -> NP VP

VP -> V (NP) (VP\')

forced:( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

S

VP

NP

I

V

NP

VP\'

him

forced

to leave

slide45

( SUBJ)

( SUBJ)

( OBJ)

( OBJ)









( XCOMP)

( XCOMP)

S -> NP VP

VP -> V (NP) (VP\')

forced:( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

S

VP

NP

I

V

NP

VP\'

him

forced

( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

to leave

slide46

( SUBJ)

( OBJ)

( OBJ)

( SUBJ)









( XCOMP)

( XCOMP)

S -> NP VP

VP -> V (NP) (VP\')

forced:( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

Index the c-structure nodes

S:1

VP:3

NP:2

I

V:4

NP:5

VP\':6

him

forced

( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

to leave

slide47

( SUBJ)

( OBJ)

( OBJ)









( XCOMP)

( XCOMP)

S -> NP VP

VP -> V (NP) (VP\')

forced:( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

Instantiate the metavariables:

Replace them with f-structure

variables based on the node indices.

S:1

(f1 SUBJ)

VP:3

NP:2

I

V:4

NP:5

VP\':6

him

forced

( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

to leave

slide48

( SUBJ)

( OBJ)

( OBJ)









( XCOMP)

( XCOMP)

S -> NP VP

VP -> V (NP) (VP\')

forced:( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

Instantiate the metavariables:

Replace them with f-structure

variables based on the node indices.

S:1

(f1 SUBJ)f2

VP:3

NP:2

I

V:4

NP:5

VP\':6

him

forced

( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

to leave

slide49

( SUBJ)

( OBJ)

( OBJ)







( XCOMP)

( XCOMP)

S -> NP VP

VP -> V (NP) (VP\')

forced:( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

Instantiate the metavariables:

Replace them with f-structure

variables based on the node indices.

S:1

f1

(f1 SUBJ)f2

VP:3

NP:2

I

V:4

NP:5

VP\':6

him

forced

( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

to leave

slide50

( SUBJ)

( OBJ)

( OBJ)







( XCOMP)

( XCOMP)

S -> NP VP

VP -> V (NP) (VP\')

forced:( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

Instantiate the metavariables:

Replace them with f-structure

variables based on the node indices.

S:1

f1f3

(f1 SUBJ)f2

VP:3

NP:2

I

V:4

NP:5

VP\':6

him

forced

( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

to leave

slide51

( SUBJ)

( OBJ)

( OBJ)





( XCOMP)

( XCOMP)

S -> NP VP

VP -> V (NP) (VP\')

forced:( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

Instantiate the metavariables:

Replace them with f-structure

variables based on the node indices.

S:1

f1f3

(f1 SUBJ)f2

VP:3

NP:2

I

f3

V:4

NP:5

VP\':6

him

forced

( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

to leave

slide52

( SUBJ)

( OBJ)

( OBJ)





( XCOMP)

( XCOMP)

S -> NP VP

VP -> V (NP) (VP\')

forced:( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

Instantiate the metavariables:

Replace them with f-structure

variables based on the node indices.

S:1

f1f3

(f1 SUBJ)f2

VP:3

NP:2

I

f3f4

V:4

NP:5

VP\':6

him

forced

( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

to leave

slide53

( SUBJ)

( OBJ)





( XCOMP)

( XCOMP)

S -> NP VP

VP -> V (NP) (VP\')

forced:( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

Instantiate the metavariables:

Replace them with f-structure

variables based on the node indices.

S:1

f1f3

(f1 SUBJ)f2

VP:3

NP:2

I

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)

V:4

NP:5

VP\':6

him

forced

( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

to leave

slide54

( SUBJ)

( OBJ)





( XCOMP)

( XCOMP)

S -> NP VP

VP -> V (NP) (VP\')

forced:( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

Instantiate the metavariables:

Replace them with f-structure

variables based on the node indices.

S:1

f1f3

(f1 SUBJ)f2

VP:3

NP:2

I

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

V:4

NP:5

VP\':6

him

forced

( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

to leave

slide55

( SUBJ)

( OBJ)





( XCOMP)

S -> NP VP

VP -> V (NP) (VP\')

forced:( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

Instantiate the metavariables:

Replace them with f-structure

variables based on the node indices.

S:1

f1f3

(f1 SUBJ)f2

VP:3

NP:2

I

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)

V:4

NP:5

VP\':6

him

forced

( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

to leave

slide56

( SUBJ)

( OBJ)





( XCOMP)

S -> NP VP

VP -> V (NP) (VP\')

forced:( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

Instantiate the metavariables:

Replace them with f-structure

variables based on the node indices.

S:1

f1f3

(f1 SUBJ)f2

VP:3

NP:2

I

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)f6

V:4

NP:5

VP\':6

him

forced

( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

to leave

slide57

( SUBJ)

( OBJ)





( XCOMP)

S -> NP VP

VP -> V (NP) (VP\')

forced:( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

Instantiate the metavariables:

Replace them with f-structure

variables based on the node indices.

S:1

f1f3

(f1 SUBJ)f2

VP:3

NP:2

I

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)f6

V:4

NP:5

VP\':6

him

forced

(f4 PRED) = \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

(f4 TENSE) = pret

(f4 OBJ) = (f4 XCOMP SUBJ)

to leave

slide58

( SUBJ)

( OBJ)





( XCOMP)

S -> NP VP

VP -> V (NP) (VP\')

forced:( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

The tree has done its job:

Forget it.

f1f3

(f1 SUBJ)f2

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)f6

(f4 PRED) = \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

(f4 TENSE) = pret

(f4 OBJ) = (f4 XCOMP SUBJ)

slide59

( SUBJ)

( OBJ)





( XCOMP)

S -> NP VP

VP -> V (NP) (VP\')

forced:( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

Collect the instantiated equations

into an f-description

(f1 SUBJ)f2

f1f3

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)f6

(f4 PRED) = \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

(f4 TENSE) = pret

(f4 OBJ) = (f4 XCOMP SUBJ)

slide60

Solve the equations in any order

to constuct an f-structure

(f1 SUBJ)f2

f1f3

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)f6

(f4 PRED) = \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

(f4 TENSE) = pret

(f4 OBJ) = (f4 XCOMP SUBJ)

slide61

F-structure for I forced him to leave

Solve the equations in any order

to constuct an f-structure

(f1 SUBJ)f2

f1f3

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)f6

(f4 PRED) = \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

(f4 TENSE) = pret

(f4 OBJ) = (f4 XCOMP SUBJ)

slide62

F-structure for I forced him to leave

(f1 SUBJ)f2

f1f3

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)f6

(f4 PRED) = \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

(f4 TENSE) = pret

(f4 OBJ) = (f4 XCOMP SUBJ)

slide63

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

SUBJ

f1

(f1 SUBJ)f2

f1f3

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)f6

(f4 PRED) = \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

(f4 TENSE) = pret

(f4 OBJ) = (f4 XCOMP SUBJ)

slide64

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

SUBJ

f1

(f1 SUBJ)f2

f1f3

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)f6

(f4 PRED) = \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

(f4 TENSE) = pret

(f4 OBJ) = (f4 XCOMP SUBJ)

slide65

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

(f1 SUBJ)f2

f1f3

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)f6

(f4 PRED) = \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

(f4 TENSE) = pret

(f4 OBJ) = (f4 XCOMP SUBJ)

slide66

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

(f1 SUBJ)f2

f1f3

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)f6

(f4 PRED) = \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

(f4 TENSE) = pret

(f4 OBJ) = (f4 XCOMP SUBJ)

slide67

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

f4

(f1 SUBJ)f2

f1f3

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)f6

(f4 PRED) = \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

(f4 TENSE) = pret

(f4 OBJ) = (f4 XCOMP SUBJ)

slide68

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

f4

(f1 SUBJ)f2

f1f3

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)f6

(f4 PRED) = \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

(f4 TENSE) = pret

(f4 OBJ) = (f4 XCOMP SUBJ)

slide69

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

f4

f5

OBJ

(f1 SUBJ)f2

f1f3

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)f6

(f4 PRED) = \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

(f4 TENSE) = pret

(f4 OBJ) = (f4 XCOMP SUBJ)

slide70

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

f4

f5

OBJ

(f1 SUBJ)f2

f1f3

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)f6

(f4 PRED) = \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

(f4 TENSE) = pret

(f4 OBJ) = (f4 XCOMP SUBJ)

slide71

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

f4

f5

OBJ

XCOMP

f6

(f1 SUBJ)f2

f1f3

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)f6

(f4 PRED) = \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

(f4 TENSE) = pret

(f4 OBJ) = (f4 XCOMP SUBJ)

slide72

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

f4

f5

OBJ

XCOMP

f6

(f1 SUBJ)f2

f1f3

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)f6

(f4 PRED) = \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

(f4 TENSE) = pret

(f4 OBJ) = (f4 XCOMP SUBJ)

slide73

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

f4

PRED \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

f5

OBJ

XCOMP

f6

(f1 SUBJ)f2

f1f3

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)f6

(f4 PRED) = \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

(f4 TENSE) = pret

(f4 OBJ) = (f4 XCOMP SUBJ)

slide74

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

f4

PRED \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

f5

OBJ

XCOMP

f6

(f1 SUBJ)f2

f1f3

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)f6

(f4 PRED) = \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

(f4 TENSE) = pret

(f4 OBJ) = (f4 XCOMP SUBJ)

slide75

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

f4

PRED \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

f5

OBJ

XCOMP

f6

(f1 SUBJ)f2

f1f3

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)f6

(f4 PRED) = \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

(f4 TENSE) = pret

(f4 OBJ) = (f4 XCOMP SUBJ)

slide76

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

f4

PRED \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

f5

OBJ

XCOMP

f6

(f1 SUBJ)f2

f1f3

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)f6

(f4 PRED) = \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

(f4 TENSE) = pret

(f4 OBJ) = (f4 XCOMP SUBJ)

slide77

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

f4

PRED \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

f5

OBJ

XCOMP

f6

(f1 SUBJ)f2

f1f3

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)f6

(f4 PRED) = \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

(f4 TENSE) = pret

(f4 OBJ) = (f4 XCOMP SUBJ)

slide78

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

TENSE pret

f4

PRED \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

f5

OBJ

XCOMP

f6

(f1 SUBJ)f2

f1f3

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)f6

(f4 PRED) = \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

(f4 TENSE) = pret

(f4 OBJ) = (f4 XCOMP SUBJ)

slide79

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

TENSE pret

f4

PRED \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

f5

OBJ

XCOMP

f6

(f1 SUBJ)f2

f1f3

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)f6

(f4 PRED) = \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

(f4 TENSE) = pret

(f4 OBJ) = (f4 XCOMP SUBJ)

slide80

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

TENSE pret

f4

PRED \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

f5

OBJ

XCOMP

f6

SUBJ

(f1 SUBJ)f2

f1f3

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)f6

(f4 PRED) = \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

(f4 TENSE) = pret

(f4 OBJ) = (f4 XCOMP SUBJ)

slide81

F-structure for I forced him to leave

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

TENSE pret

f4

PRED \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

f5

OBJ

XCOMP

f6

SUBJ

(f1 SUBJ)f2

f1f3

f3f4

(f3 OBJ)f5

(f3 XCOMP)f6

Notice: The f-structure has

fewer levels than the c-structure

because of the nodes annotated

with

(f4 PRED) = \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

(f4 TENSE) = pret

(f4 OBJ) = (f4 XCOMP SUBJ)

slide82

( OBJ)

( SUBJ)





( XCOMP)

The nodes in the tree and the elements of the f-structure

now stand in a many-to-one relation:

S

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

TENSE pret

VP

f4

NP

I

PRED \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

V

NP

VP\'

f5

him

forced

OBJ

to leave

XCOMP

f6

SUBJ

slide83

( OBJ)

( SUBJ)





( XCOMP)

The nodes in the tree and the elements of the f-structure

now stand in a many-to-one relation:

S

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

TENSE pret

VP

f4

NP

I

PRED \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

V

NP

VP\'

f5

him

forced

OBJ

to leave

XCOMP

f6

SUBJ

slide84

( OBJ)

( SUBJ)





( XCOMP)

The nodes in the tree and the elements of the f-structure

now stand in a many-to-one relation:

S

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

TENSE pret

VP

f4

NP

I

PRED \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

V

NP

VP\'

f5

him

forced

OBJ

to leave

XCOMP

f6

SUBJ

slide85

( OBJ)

( SUBJ)





( XCOMP)

The nodes in the tree and the elements of the f-structure

now stand in a many-to-one relation:

S

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

TENSE pret

VP

f4

NP

I

PRED \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

V

NP

VP\'

f5

him

forced

OBJ

to leave

XCOMP

f6

SUBJ

slide86

( OBJ)

( SUBJ)





( XCOMP)

The nodes in the tree and the elements of the f-structure

now stand in a many-to-one relation:

S

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

TENSE pret

VP

f4

NP

I

PRED \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

V

NP

VP\'

f5

him

forced

OBJ

to leave

XCOMP

f6

SUBJ

slide87

( OBJ)

( SUBJ)





( XCOMP)

The nodes in the tree and the elements of the f-structure

now stand in a many-to-one relation:

S

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

TENSE pret

VP

f4

NP

I

PRED \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

V

NP

VP\'

f5

him

forced

OBJ

to leave

XCOMP

f6

SUBJ

slide88

( OBJ)

( SUBJ)





( XCOMP)

The nodes in the tree and the elements of the f-structure

now stand in a many-to-one relation:

S

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

TENSE pret

VP

f4

NP

I

PRED \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

V

NP

VP\'

f5

him

forced

OBJ

to leave

XCOMP

f6

SUBJ

slide89

( OBJ)

( SUBJ)





( XCOMP)

The nodes in the tree and the elements of the f-structure

now stand in a many-to-one relation:

S

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

TENSE pret

VP

f4

NP

I

PRED \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

V

NP

VP\'

f5

him

forced

OBJ

to leave

XCOMP

f6

SUBJ

slide90

( OBJ)

( SUBJ)





( XCOMP)

The nodes in the tree and the elements of the f-structure

now stand in a many-to-one relation:

S

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

TENSE pret

VP

f4

NP

I

PRED \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

V

NP

VP\'

f5

him

forced

OBJ

to leave

XCOMP

f6

SUBJ

slide91

( OBJ)

( SUBJ)





( XCOMP)

The nodes in the tree and the elements of the f-structure

now stand in a many-to-one relation:

S

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

TENSE pret

VP

f4

NP

I

PRED \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

V

NP

VP\'

f5

him

forced

OBJ

to leave

XCOMP

f6

SUBJ

The relation is called a projection relation.

slide92

( OBJ)

( SUBJ)





( XCOMP)

The nodes in the tree and the elements of the f-structure

now stand in a many-to-one relation:

A functional domain

S

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

TENSE pret

VP

f4

NP

I

PRED \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

V

NP

VP\'

f5

him

forced

OBJ

to leave

XCOMP

f6

SUBJ

The relation is called a projection relation.

A set of nodes which project the same f-structure

are said to constitute a functional domain.

slide93

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

TENSE pret

f4

PRED \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

f5

OBJ

Let us now move from

I forced him to leave

to

I believed him to leave

XCOMP

f6

SUBJ

slide94

All we need to change is the lexical entry:

( OBJ)

( OBJ)

( SUBJ)

( SUBJ)









( XCOMP)

( XCOMP)

S -> NP VP

VP -> V (NP) (VP\')

forced:( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

S

VP

NP

I

V

NP

VP\'

him

forced

( PRED) = \'FORCE‹( SUBJ)( OBJ)( XCOMP)›\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

to leave

slide95

All we need to change is the lexical entry:

( SUBJ)

( OBJ)

( OBJ)

( SUBJ)









( XCOMP)

( XCOMP)

S -> NP VP

VP -> V (NP) (VP\')

believed:( PRED) = ’BELIEVE‹( SUBJ) ( XCOMP)›( OBJ)\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

S

VP

NP

I

V

NP

VP\'

believed

him

( PRED) = ’BELIEVE‹( SUBJ) ( XCOMP)›( OBJ)\'

( TENSE) = pret

( OBJ) = ( XCOMP SUBJ)

to leave

slide96

This leads to the following change in the f-structure:

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

TENSE pret

f4

PRED \'FORCE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 OBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›\'

f5

OBJ

XCOMP

f6

SUBJ

slide97

This leads to the following change in the f-structure:

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

TENSE pret

f4

PRED ’BELIEVE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›(f4 OBJ)\'

f5

OBJ

XCOMP

f6

SUBJ

slide98

This leads to the following change in the f-structure:

f2

SUBJ

f1

f3

TENSE pret

f4

PRED ’BELIEVE‹(f4 SUBJ)(f4 XCOMP)›(f4 OBJ)\'

f5

OBJ

XCOMP

f6

SUBJ

The only change is in the mapping between syntactic functions

and argument positions, as expressed in the value of PRED.

The syntax as such is unchanged.

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