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Please read the instructions before you start the ppt
Please read the instructions before you start the PPT

  • DON’T’S

  • Don’t have text in paragraphs and don’t fill the slide only with text. Have a mix of both pics and text in each slide

  • Don’t add more then two subtopics in one slide

  • Do not use different fonts and text size. Maintain the standard fonts

  • Don’t deviate from the topic

  • Don’t add pics from the restricted sites

  • DO’s

  • Brevity in usage of text: Restrict text to bullet points or keyword-headings in slide areas. If you need to describe anything using sentences, the best place for that would be the ‘notes’ section of each slide.

  • Follow a structure of objectives-introduction-main explanation-conclusion

  • Add a work sheet to every topic you make, put it at the end of your slide show

  • Be as specific as possible about defining your topic. For instance, take the topic of interest (math). This is a broad heading and can include just the concept OR the application of the concept OR even an advanced sub topic. Ensure the title of your topic gives as specific a snapshot as possible.

  • Add a youtube video, topic specific.

  • Use more pics downloaded from wikipedia

  • Add more slides if required


Chapter vii non metals

CHAPTER VII – Non Metals

Science – IX


Module objectives
Module Objectives

  • Recap – How elements are classified and arranged into periodic tables.

  • Non-metals examples

  • List out the physical properties of non-metals

  • Write the chemical properties of non-metals

  • Distinguish between metals and non-metals

  • Study of two important non-metals – 1. Phosphorous 2. Sulphur, which are used widely.


Phosphorous
Phosphorous

  • Essential nutrient and components of bones, teeth, gums and blood of animal body.

  • Necessary for the growth of the plant and to carry out photosynthesis in plants

  • It is the second element of 15th group in periodic table

  • SYMBOL – P

  • ATOMIC NO. – 15

  • MASS NO. – 31

  • Electronic Configuration – 1s2,2s2,2P6, 3S2,3P3


Phosphorous occurrence
Phosphorous - Occurrence

  • Highly active element

  • Does not occur freely in nature

  • Widely distributed in nature in phosphate rocks

  • It is main component of bone. So, it occurs in bone ash in the form of calcium phosphate

  • Important minerals of Phosphorous.

    • Note – Apatite is also known as Fluorapatite


Phosphorous extraction
Phosphorous - Extraction

  • Extracted by heating bone ash or rock phosphate

  • Mixture of finely powdered rock phosphate, sand (silica) and coke are introduced in electric furnace

  • An electric arc struck between the electrodes produces high temperature

  • Phosphorous pentoxide is formed by the reaction of rock phosphate and sand (silica)


Allotrophic forms of phosphorous
Allotrophicforms of Phosphorous

  • Like carbon, phosphorous also exhibits allotropy.

  • Two allotropic forms are white phosphorous and red phosphorous

  • White phosphorous is obtained by rapid cooling of phosphorous vapour.

  • Red phosphorous is prepared by heating white phosphorous to about 2500C along with inert gases


Allotrophic forms of phosphorous contd
Allotrophicforms of Phosphorouscontd.

  • When white phosphorous is exposed to air at about 300C, it reacts with oxygen and fumes

  • But, it does not react with water

  • So this highly reactive element is stored under water

  • White phosphorous undergoes spontaneous slow oxidation in air

  • This oxidation is visible like a greenish glow in the dark. This phenomenon is known as Phosphorescence.


Phosphorous chemical properties action with air oxygen
Phosphorous – ChemicalpropertiesAction with AIR / OXYGEN

  • Phosphorous trioxide is formed when phosphorous is burnt in a limited supply of air.

  • Phosphorous pentoxide is formed when phosphorous is burnt in excess of air.


Phosphorous chemical properties action with chlorine
Phosphorous – ChemicalpropertiesAction withChlorine

  • Phosphorous trichloride is formed when the supply of chlorine is limited.

  • Phosphorous pentachloride is formed with excess amount of chlorine


Phosphorous chemical properties action with alkalis
Phosphorous – ChemicalpropertiesAction with Alkalis

  • Phosphine is formed when phosphorous is boiled with Sodium hydroxide

  • Phosphine is a colorless gas with an unpleasant odour. It is highly poisonous

  • Oxides of phosphorous are acidic in nature. They form oxyacids when they disolve in water.

  • Important oxyacids are:

    • Orthophosphoric acid – H3PO4

    • Metaphosphoric acid – HPO3

    • Pyrophosphoric acid – H4P2O7


Uses of phosphorous
Uses of Phosphorous

  • Red Phosphorous is used widely in the manufacture of safety matches

  • White phosphorous is used in bullets and in incendiary bombs

    • It is used to make phosphorous bronze

    • Phosphorous is used in rat poison

    • It is widely used in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers


Phosphorous fertilizers
Phosphorousfertilizers

  • Essential for the growth of plants

  • Needed to carry out photosynthesis and to give high yield

  • Plants absorb phosphorous in the form of water soluble compunds

  • Leaves turn yellow when they do not get phosphorous in the required quantity

  • So, it is necessary to add phosphorous in the form of chemical fertilizer to soil


Preparation of super phosphate
Preparation of Super Phosphate

  • Manufactured by treating the water insoluble phosphate rock with a specific amount of concentrated sulphuric acid

  • Mixture of Calcium sulphate and calcium dihydrogen phosphate is obtained. This mixture is called super phosphate


Sulphur
Sulphur

  • Element sulphur has been known from ancient times as Brimstone which means Burning Stone

  • Brimstone means burning stone.

  • Sulphur is used in the treatment of skin diseases and as a fumigant since ancient times.

  • Symbol – S

  • Atomic No. – 16

  • Atomic Mass – 32

  • Electronic configuration – 1S2, 2S2, 2P6, 3S2, 3P4

  • Sulphur is second element of 16th group in the periodic table

  • Due to its incompletely filled outer orbit (3S2, 3P4) it readily combines with other elements forming covalent and ionic bonds.


Occurrence of sulphur
Occurrence of Sulphur

  • Sulphur is highly reactive element.

  • Occurs in free state and more abundantly as a compound.

  • It occurs in free state as vapour in volcanic eruption

  • Main Sulphur ores

    • Galena – PbS

    • Cinnabar – HgS

    • Zinc blende – ZnS

    • Gypsum – CaSO42H2O


Extraction of sulphur
Extraction of Sulphur

  • Sulphur is obtained from underground deposits by Frasch process

  • Method is based on the relatively low melting point of sulphur (1190C)

  • Sulphur deposits occur at a depth of about 230 to 400 metres.


Extraction of sulphur1
Extraction of Sulphur

  • Concentric pipes are sunk from the surface to the sulphur deposits

  • Super heated water at 1700 – 1800C is sent through the outer most pipes

  • Same time, hot compressed air is forced down through the central pipe

  • Hot water melts sulphur

  • Foam is produced which it mixes with hot air

  • Foam is brought up to the surface by middle pipes by the action air blast

  • Sulphur obtained is about 99.5% pure.


Allotropic form of sulphur
Allotropicform of Sulphur

  • Exhibits allotropy like carbon and phosphorus

  • Allotropes of sulphur are Rhombic sulphur, monoclinic sulphur and plastic sulphur


Rhombic sulphur
RhombicSulphur

  • Powdered Sulphur is dissolved in carbon disulphide to make a saturated solution.

  • It is allowed to evaporate slowly

  • Yellow crystals of rhombic sulphur are obtained

  • Eight atoms are arranged in octahedral shape

  • Hence, it is also called as Octahedral sulphur


Monoclinic sulphur
MonoclinicSulphur

  • Monoclinic Sulphur which is also known as Prismatic Sulphur or beta-Sulphur, is a yellow crystalline solid

  • Take sulphur in China dish and melt it slowly at 1250C

  • Allow liquid to cool slowly until a crust is formed at the surface

  • Break the crust and pour the liquid only

  • Observe crystals of needle-shaped monoclinic sulphur sticking to the sides of dish. This is called Prismatic sulphur

  • Rhombic sulphur is stable below 950C while monoclinic is stable above 95.50C

  • When Rhombic sulphur is heated above 95.50C monoclinic sulphur is formed


Plastic sulphur
Plastic Sulphur

  • Melt sulphur in china dish and molten Sulphur is poured in cold water

  • Soft rubber like mass is obtained

  • Dark-brown elastic solid is called Plastic sulphur


Effects of heat on sulphur
Effects of heat on Sulphur

  • When Sulphur is heated above 1150C it melts and a pale-yellow liquid is obtained

  • At 1800C the liquid becomes dark brown and viscous and does not flow

  • Ring structure is changed into open chain

  • High temperature the chain breaks down

  • At about 4350CSulphur boils and its vapour is formed


Physical properties of allotropes of sulphur
Physicalproperties of allotropes of Sulphur


Chemical properties
ChemicalProperties

  • Sulphur burns within limited supply of air with a blue flame to give sulphur dioxide along with small quantity of sulphur trioxide

  • Sulphuric acid is formed when sulphur trioxide dissolves in water


Reaction with non metals
Reactionwithnon-metals

  • Sulphur forms sulphides with other non-metals

  • When sulphurvapour is passed through red-hot coke, carbon disulphide is formed

    C + 2S  CS2

  • When hydrogen gas is passed through molten sulphur, hydrogen sulphide is formed

    H2 + S  H2S

    • When sulphur reacts with concentrated nitric acid, sulphuric acid is formed

      S + 6HNO3 H2SO4 + 6NO2 + 2H2O


Uses of sulphur
Uses of Sulphur

  • Sulphuris mainly used for the manufacture of Sulphuric Acid

  • It is good disinfectant and used in manufacture of skin ointments

  • Vapours of lime and sulphur are used as insecticides

  • Sulphur is the main component of gunpowder and explosives

  • Used for vulcanising natural rubber


Vulcanisation
Vulcanisation

  • Natural rubber is a polymer of long chain hydrocarbon

  • Becomes sticky when heated and brittle when cooled

  • Because of its elasticity, it is not possible to give definite shape to rubber

  • When sulphur is added in a definite proportion to the natural rubber, it becomes hard and gets all the desirable properties

  • It is easy to give it any definite shape


Combustion
Combustion

  • Production and regulation of fire changed the life of ancient man remarkably.

  • Early man found that he could keep himself warm with fire, cook food to make it more tasty

  • He used fire to extract metals, to make bricks etc.

  • Hence, Use of fire has played a vital role in the development of civilisation

  • Combustion is a type of chemical change

  • Even today, man depends upon combustion to meet his major energy requirements


What is combustion
Whatis Combustion?

  • When substances (mainly fuels) react with oxidizing agents like oxygen, produce energy in the form of heat and light, this process is called Combustion

  • Combustion is a type of chemical change in which energy is liberated and new substances are formed


Types of combustion
Types of Combustion

  • Crackers undergo combustion very quickly liberating enormous amount of energy in the form of light and heat. This is know as explosion

    Note the following chemical reactions

  • Rusting of iron, that is action of moist air with iron to produce iron oxide

  • Oxidation of glucose by oxygen in our body.

  • Above said reactions are examples of Combustion which take place very slowly


Calorific value
Calorific Value

  • Earlier, heat energy was measured in calories.

  • Now, heat energy can be converted into mechanical energy

  • Hence, heat energy is also expressed in Joules


Carbonic fuels
Carbonic Fuels

  • Carbonic fuels are the main sources of energy

  • Coal and petroleum are main carbon fuels


Carbonic fuels petroleum
Carbonic Fuels - Petroleum

  • Petroleum is a complex mixture of many saturated hydrocarbons

  • These hydrocarbons have carbon atoms ranging from 4 to 50

  • Crude oil and natural gas mixture are obtained from the mines

  • After separating natural gas the crude oil mixture is subjected to fractional distillation to separate different fractions


Comparison between petrol diesel
ComparisonbetweenPetrol & Diesel


Caution
Caution

  • Petroleum fuels are non-renewable sources of energy

  • They were formed over the cours of millions of years in the earth’s crust

  • Petroleum is important source of energy

  • Technology of utilising alternate economical sources of energy has not yet been developed


Combustion and air pollution
Combustion and air pollution

  • Atmosphere is the thin blanket of air around the earth

  • It sustains life on the earth

  • Major components of pure air are nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, rare gases and traces of water vapour

  • Air is polluted when unwanted substances enter into the atmosphere and cause ill effect on Biotic and Aboitic environment

  • Air pollution is principally caused by gases produced combusion


Effect of air pollution on biotic and abiotic environment
Effect of air pollution on Biotic and Abioticenvironment

  • Carbon dioxide

    • Even though carbon dioxide is an essential component of air, if the percentage of the gas increases above a certain limit, it causes pollution.

    • When the percentage of carbon dioxide increases, it checks the heat radiations produced by Earth which results in increase of global temperature

  • Carbon monoxide

    • Produced by the partial combustion of carbon fuel

    • On inhaling air containing carbon monoxide, it combines with hemoglobin of red blood corpuscles forming carbon-hemoglobin. Then it reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of blood

  • Hydrocarbons

    • 55% of the hydrocarbons present in the atmosphere are formed due to incomplete combustion of petroleum fuels

    • Responsible for the smog formation in atmosphere


What is acid rain
WhatisAcidRain?

  • Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulphur

    • Oxides of nitrogen and sulphur are produced by the combustion of petroleum products and coal which cause Acid Rain

  • Oxides of sulphur and nitrogen combine with the water vapour in the atmosphere to form sulphuric acid and nitric acid

  • These acids precipitations dissolve in rain water known as Acid Rain

  • Acid rain causes extensive damage to stone buildings and sculpture of marbles, limestone, etc

  • Stones become pitted and weaken mechanically.


Lead other pollutants
Lead & otherpollutants

  • Lead is added to petrol in the form of tetra ethyle lead for the efficient working of engines

  • It comes out of the engine along with exhaust gases

  • Lead causes brain disorder in human beings

    Other pollutants

  • Dust and carbon particles produced due to incomplete combustion and fly ash are also responsible for air pollution

  • They affect the health of living beings

  • They spoil the beauty of buildings


References
References

  • http://educationalelectronicsusa.com/c/metals-VI.htm

  • Google Images

  • http://www.wisegeek.org/



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