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Type of Pests (Insects, Non-insect Pests) PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Type of Pests (Insects, Non-insect Pests). Introduction

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Type of Pests (Insects, Non-insect Pests)

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Type of Pests (Insects, Non-insect Pests)

Introduction

A pest is an organism which is detrimental to humans or human interest. Living organisms are derided as pests as they cause damage to agriculture by feeding on crops or parasitizing livestock or acting as carrier of diseases of man and livestock. The term "plant pest" is any species or strain of plant, animal, or pathogenic agent injurious to plants or plant products. The most important pests in the order of importance are constituted by insects and non-insect pests like mites, nematodes and gastropods (snails and slugs). Although rodents, birds and mammals, which are inimical to welfare of man are also called pests.

Bollworm damage in cotton

Cabbage butterfly larvae

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Insects as pests

Insects are the most diverse and dominant pests among animals. They damage crops right from germination to harvest in field and also in godowns during post-harvest storage. No plant part is virtually spared by insect pests. Different insects can utilize different plant parts due to specialized mouth parts. In this way, they have reduced competition among themselves. Pests like termites feed on underground plants parts as well crop residues and also damage timber, furniture, books and other commodities.

Cabbage butterfly damage

Planthopper damage in rice

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Types of insect pests

  • Based on feeding habits insects can be categorized as

  • Tissue consumers

  • Sap suckers

  • Tissue consumers include pest affecting stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and roots, and also crop residues.

  • Sap suckers suck sap from different plant parts affecting growth and development of crops.

Stem borer damage in rice

Planthoppers in rice

Crop lodging due to planthopper damage

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Tissue consumers

A. Stem damaging insects:

Stem borer: Rice stem borer, maize stem borer, sugarcane early shoot borer, top shoot borer

banana pseudo stem borer, mango stem borer

Shoot fly: Maize, sorghum and wheat shoot fly

Node borer: Sugarcane internode borer

Cutworms: Gram cutworm

Banana pseudo stem borer

Mango stem borer

Cutworm larva

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C. Leaf damaging insects

Leaf folder: Rice leaf folder, cotton leaf roller, grape leaf roller

Leaf miner: Pea leaf miner, citrus leaf miner, mustard leaf miner

Defoliators: Grasshoppers, defoliating beetles

Rice leaf folder larva and adult

Grasshopper

Hadda beetle

Leaf miner damage

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Flower feeding insects

Rice gundhi bug

Banded blister beetles

Thrips

Rice gundhi bug

Banded blister beetle

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B. Fruit damaging insects

Fruit borer: Tomato fruit borer, lady finger fruit borer, brinjal shoot and fruit borer

Pod borer: Gram pod borer, pigeon pea pod borer, pea pod borer

Bollworms: Cotton pink bollworm, spotted bollworm, American bollworm

Fruit fly: Mango fruit fly, cucurbit fruit fly,

guava fruit fly

Fruit sucking moth: Orange sucking moth

Pod borer damage in gram

Fruit borer damage

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Root damaging insects

Termites: Wheat, maize, sugarcane, gram

White grubs: Sugarcane, ground nut, maize

Root weevils: Rice root weevil

Mole cricket: Wheat, maize, gram, rice

Termite galleries

Termite workers

White grubs

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Sucking insects

Stem suckers: Rice planthoppers, sugarcane woolly aphid

Leaf suckers: Rice leafhopper, cotton leafhopper, lady finger leafhopper, cotton whitefly, cotton mealy

Flower suckers: Rose thrips, mungbeanthrips, rice panicle thrips, mustard aphid

Fruit suckers:Fruit sucking moth

Root suckers: Wheat root aphid

White fly

Mustard aphid

Rice green leafhopper

Rice brown planthopper

Thrips

Rice white-backed planthopper

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Non-insect pests

A. Mites

Mites also known as acarina belong to phylum Arachnida, to which spiders also belong. These are minute organisms that can rarely be seen with naked eyes. Mites cause heavy damage in crops especially in vegetables and ornamentals. Mites constitute a large group with its members inhabiting a variety of habitats like soil, water, plants, animals, processed food and animal waste. Mites damage crops by sucking sap from them.

Red spider mite

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Damage

Phytophagous mites infest a wide variety of plants leading to yellowing, discolouration, curling or other type of deformation of leaves or defoliation; development of galls on leaves; deformities of plants such as swelling of nodes and internodes, stunting of shoots or malformation of fruits.

Mite damage in brinjal

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Predatory mites

Predatory mites feed on phytophagous mites thus aiding in biological control of harmful mites. Amblyseiusfallacis, Agistemus fleschneri and Zetzellia mali are some of the species of predatory mites. Their size is more or less similar to that of spider mites

Predatory mites

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B. Snails and Slugs

Snails and slugs belong to phylum, Mollusca and hence also known as molluscs. Giant African snails is most important snail pest having spread worldwide due to accidentally as well as deliberately. Snails possess a protective shell covering, formed by their own secretion, while slugs lack protective shell. The snails are very active during rainy season. Their activities are very much correlated with the rainfall and humidity.

Giant African snail

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Damage

Garden flowers and ornamentals are among the most susceptible plants to attack of giant African snail. Host range of giant African snail is very big and includes papaya, banana, cole crops, lobhia, beans, cucurbits, brinjal, marigold, portulacea, violet, money plant, arecanut, rubber buds and coffee seedlings. Marigold and Luffaare among the most preferred food of this pest.It also drinks rubber sap. Papaya is also damaged to serious level. All parts of papaya plant are susceptible to the attack of the giant African snail.

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Plant Parasitic Nematodes

Nematodes are popularly called as round worms. Nematodes belong to the phylum Aschelminthes. Plant parasitic nematodes constitute one of the important groups of organisms which live in soil around plant roots. They are often microscopic, long and slender, confined usually to the top soil of 20-25 cm. Plant parasitic nematodes cause extensively damage to cultivated plants, resulting in heavy losses. Damage may be caused directly, or indirectly when the phytoparasitic nematodes transmit plant viruses or allow pathogens to gain entry into the plant through damaged areas created by these nematodes.

Magnified picture of root knot nematode

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Symptoms of Nematode Damage

Root knot nematode

Galls on roots, stunting and wilting as in lady’s finger.

Cyst nematode

Shallow root system, chlorosis (yellowing of leaves) and wilting during hot weather even in presence of sufficient soil moisture

Ear cockle nematode

Stunted growth with wrinkled and twisted leaves, reduced and irregularly developed earheads, wheat grains converting into seed galls or cocks

White tip nematode

Yellowing, browning and finally whitening of 2-5 cm leaf tips which then dry up and hangs down, kernels becoming chaffy and distorted as in the case of paddy

Root knot nematode damage

Ear cockle nematode damage

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Crabs

Crabs are arthropods which belong to group Crustacea and are aquatic by nature. The rice fields crab, Paratelphusahydrodrumus lives in holes in the sides of field bunds and irrigated channels etc., where water does not stand. Channels and holes are protected by heaping soil around their openings.

Nature of damage

Seedlings are cut down into bits at ground levels and carried to the holes for feeding. In addition to crop damage, crab holes made into bunds lead to beaches and water loss.

Crab

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Millipedes

Millipedes are also arthropods and nocturnal, which live beneath leaves, stones, bark and logs as well as in soil. As the name indicates, these have a large number of legs.

Millipedes commonly occurring in India are Lulas sp. on Jowar and Harpurostreptus sp. on tapioca. They are brownish black in colour and about 8.7 cm in length.

Nature of damage

The adults and juveniles feed on tender buds and roots of newly planted crops. The tapioca millipedes feed on tender buds and roots of newly planted sets resulting in stunting and often death of plants. Some of the millipedes consume groundnut kernels.

Millipedes

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Rats and mice

Rats cause severe damage to crops and domestic commodities, thereby requiring to be controlled effectively. The atmosphere and surroundings of human habitations are fouled by them to the extent that it becomes intolerable for man. Several types of diseases are known to be transmitted by rats. Besides consuming considerable quantity of food, they contaminate much more by urine, faeces, and hairs and sebaceous secretions. Religious sentiments of some people come in the way of rat control.

Mus booduga

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Hare and rabbit

Hares and rabbits are one of the best known wild mammals and of considerable economic importance. They are nocturnal and graze mainly on grass, herbs, scrubs, bulbs, roots, bark etc. Instances of their becoming pests on agricultural crops are widely known throughout the country. They do considerable damage to crops like wheat, barleygram, maize, jowar, bajra, pea, mustard, bean, cabbage and others. They are browse on young fruit trees and forest plants.

Hare

Rabbit

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  • Let’s Sum Up

  • A pest is an animal which is detrimental to humans or human interest.

  • Most important pests are among insects and non-insect pests like mites, nematodes, and snails and slugs.

  • Based on feeding habits insect pests can be categorized as tissue consumers and sap suckers.

  • Tissue consumers damage stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and roots, and also crop residues.

  • Sap suckers like aphids and whiteflies suck sap from plant parts.

  • Mites such as red spider mites cause heavy damage in crops especially in vegetables and ornamentals.

  • Giant African snails is most important snail pest having spread worldwide and causes heavy damage in ornamentals and vegetables.

  • Crabs and millipedes also damage crops in certain localities.

  • Rodents and some birds and mammals are also harmful to man.

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