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geotraces intercalibration
GEOTRACES Intercalibration

Intercalibration – The process, procedures, and activities used to ensure that the several laboratories engaged in a monitoring program can produce compatible data. When compatible data outputs are achieved and this situation is maintained, the laboratories can be said to be intercalibrated (Taylor, 1987).

Intercalibration therefore is an active process between laboratories that includes all steps from sampling to analyses, with the goal of achieving the same accurate results regardless of the method or lab.

elemental coordinators leaders for geotraces intercalibration
Elemental Coordinators/Leaders for GEOTRACES Intercalibration
grant 1 us geotraces sampling systems and intercalibration pis cutter bruland and sherrell
Grant 1: US GEOTRACES Sampling Systems and Intercalibration (PIs: Cutter, Bruland, and Sherrell)

(1) Develop and test the US GEOTRACES sampling systems and procedures for dissolved and particulate TEIs. This equipment will be a community resource for use in all future US GEOTRACES cruises;

(2) Using these systems, conduct a thorough intercalibration for all the key GEOTRACES TEIs, and as many others as possible, in the dissolved and particulate phases through the participation of the worldwide TEI community;

(3) Establish GEOTRACES Baseline Stations in the western North Atlantic (BATS) and eastern North Pacific as part of the Intercalibration Cruises; and

(4) Fully document the intercalibration results and create “GEOTRACES User Manuals and Procedures” for future GEOTRACES cruises.

slide4
Grant 2: Sampling facility for US GEOTRACES and other trace element biogeochemistry programs (PI: Cutter)
  • Seabird polyurethane powder-coated aluminum rosette with 24 12 L GO-Flo sampling bottles capable of being triggered 3 at a time while on the up-cast into uncontaminated water. The GO-Flo bottles pivot out slightly to ease mounting and removal
  • Seabird CTD with oxygen probe, fluorometer, and transmissometer; all titanium housings. All pressure housings and nuts/bolts are titanium and isolated from the frame, thus no zinc anodes
  • 8000 m Kevlar/polyester conducting cable for deploying the clean CTD/rosette
  • Dynacon traction winch with composite sheaves and line monitoring, plus a composite block/sheave to be hung on the J frame
  • 10 m Al boom and stand for deploying towed “fish” for clean, underway sampling
  • UNOLS-approved trace metal-clean sampling van for processing the clean water and particle samples
  • Shipping flat rack van for the rosette and winch
geotraces intercalibration time line
GEOTRACES Intercalibration Time Line
  • Sept. 2007. Interim GEOTRACES User’s Manuals for IPY Cruises.
  • Dec. 2007. First Intercalibration workshop (AGU): planning for 1st cruise
  • June – July 2008. 1st Intercalibration cruise (Sargasso Sea): evaluate sampling apparati and handling methods (diss and part), collect and distribute intercalibration samples, sample storage experiments, establish Baseline Station at BATS
  • Dec. 2008. Second Intercalibration workshop (AGU): evaluate and interpret intercalibration results, planning for 2nd cruise
  • Spring 2009. 2nd Intercalibration cruise (eastern North Pacific): final testing of complete sampling system and procedures, intercalibrate with other (non-US) sampling systems, speciation + total TEI intercalibration, determine the time to occupy one GEOTRACES station (for cruise planning purposes)
  • Jan.-Feb 2010. Third Intercalibration workshop: finalize complete intercalibration results, begin assembling GEOTRACES User Manuals
slide6

US GEOTRACES Intercalibration Cruise 1:R/V Knorr, 8 June – 12 July 2008Western North AtlanticG. Cutter, Chief ScientistK. Bruland and R. Sherrell, Co-Chief Scientists

Major Objectives:

  • Test the new Seabird carousel sampling system against known methods, and modify as needed (ship board trace metal analyses).
  • Test particle sampling: small volume GO-Flo filtration vs. in-situ pumps (McLane and MULVFS).
  • Perform intercalibration sampling (2 depths, 1000L) and vertical profiles at BATS and Shelf Break Stations for dissolved and particulate TEIs. Establish BATS as a GEOTRACES Baseline Station
geotraces baseline stations
GEOTRACES Baseline Stations
  • Ocean stations where TEI distributions, concentrations, and speciation have been extensively studied (established). Ideally, there should be > 2 per ocean basin.
  • Occupying these during a GEOTRACES transect allows de facto intercalibration for each cruise. In addition, these locations facilitate the testing of new sampling or analytical methods.
  • Each GEOTRACES section cruise should occupy 1-2 existing Baseline Stations, or establish new ones when cruise tracks overlap at 1-2 stations.
  • Ocean Time Series Stations are potentially good Baseline Stations – regular occupation, large data base, and most are logistically convenient or located in GEOTRACES-relevant ocean regimes
participants leg 1 8 27 june norfolk bats bermuda
Participants – Leg 18-27 June (Norfolk-BATS-Bermuda)
  • Cutter’s Group: Cutter, Greg; Barnes, Curtis; Morton, Peter; Gipson, Brandon; Lingle, Carie
  • Bruland’s Group: Bruland, Ken; Brown, Matt; Lippiatt, Sherry; Lohan, Maeve; Smith, Geoffrey; Sohst, Bettina
  • Sherrell’s Group: Sherrell, Rob; Babila, Tali; Theodore, Christine; Severmann, Silke
  • Boyle’s Group: Boyle, Ed; John, Seth
  • Hg Group: Lamborg, Carl; Mason, Rob; Gichuki, Susan
  • CLIVAR Group: Landing, Bill; Gosnell, Kathleen; Grand, Maxime Marcel; Hatta, Mariko
  • Japanese Group: Obata, Hajime; Norisuye, Kazuhiro
  • Wu’s Group: Wu, Jingfeng; Li, Chundi; Rember, Rob; Aguilar-Islas, Ana
  • Shipboard Cd, Pb: Cullen, Jay
  • Spanish Representative: Santos-Echeandía, Juan
participants leg 2 29 june 12 july bermuda bats shelfbreak norfolk
Participants – Leg 229 June – 12 July (Bermuda-BATS-Shelfbreak-Norfolk)
  • Cutter’s Group: Cutter, Greg; Barnes, Curtis; Morton, Peter; Gipson, Brandon; Lingle, Carie
  • Bruland’s Group: Smith, Geoffrey; Sohst, Bettina
  • Sherrell’s Group: Sherrell, Rob; Field, Paul; Theodore, Christine; Franzese, Allison
  • LDEO Group: Anderson, Bob; Kenna, Tim; Fleisher, Marty; Graham, Dennis; Pahnke, Katharina; van de Flierdt, Tina
  • MULVFS Group: Bishop, Jim; Morales, Alejandro (Alex); Wood, Todd; Lam, Phoebe
  • Th/McLane Pump Group: Maiti, Kanchan; Pal, Sharmila; Pike, Steven
  • Ra Group: Charette, Matt; Dulaiova, Henrieta; Bourquin, Michael
  • Phosphate O isotopes: Colman, Albert
  • N, O isotopes: McIlvin, Matthew
us geotraces sampling facility
US GEOTRACES Sampling Facility
  • Housed at Old Dominion University
  • Available for all US GEOTRACES Cruises, and related trace element studies
  • In addition to the equipment itself, a marine technician, Curtis Barnes, experienced with the maintenance and use of the equipment is provided. However, the users must supply their own technicians, students, et al. to do the actual sampling and sample handling; Curtis operates the sampling equipment and/or trains the users how to do it.
intercalibration during geotraces basin surveys items to consider
Intercalibration during GEOTRACES Basin Surveys: items to consider
  • Use GEOTRACES methods (documented in the User Manuals) for accurate sample acquisition and handling.
  • Occupy 1-2 Baseline Stations during a transect, or overlap transects to reoccupy 1-2 stations, thereby creating new Baseline Stations.
  • If a Baseline Station cannot be occupied, at 2 stations per transect, acquire replicate samples for distribution to various labs to evaluate sample storage and analytical accuracy.
  • Samples will include both seawater and suspended particles.
  • Conduct post-cruise evaluation of intercalibration results as soon as possible to verify accurate results.
crude estimates of geotraces sampling times
Crude Estimates of GEOTRACES Sampling Times
  • Using the GEOTRACES carousel, a 4000 m cast takes 4 hours maximum (deployment to recovery)
  • Processing the 24 GO Flo samples for dissolved and particulate (filter) samples takes ca. 6 hours.
  • Depth coverage depends on # of bottles fired per depth (up to 3)
  • Ideal sequence would be shallow GEOTRACES, then ship’s rosette, then deep GEOTRACES, then ship’s rosette, etc
  • Does NOT include any pump sampling
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