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World War II. World War II. During the 1930s, Italy, Germany, and Japan, sought to build new empires and their aggression went unchecked until it became impossible to ignore in 1939 With advanced technology, the war covered a larger area and was more destructive than any before.

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world war ii1
World War II
  • During the 1930s, Italy, Germany, and Japan, sought to build new empires and their aggression went unchecked until it became impossible to ignore in 1939
  • With advanced technology, the war covered a larger area and was more destructive than any before
unit essential questions
Unit Essential Questions
  • What events led up to World War II?
  • How did new weapons technology affect the course of the war?
  • How were the lives of individuals affected by the war?
  • What were the major turning points of the war that helped determine its outcome?
the road to war
The Road to War
  • In the 1930s, Italy, Germany, and Japan aggressively sought to build new empires
  • These acts of aggressions went unchecked…
    • Why?
      • The League of Nations was weak
      • Western countries were recovering from the Great Depression
      • Western countries did not want to fight another war
japan invades china
Japan Invades China
  • Japan wanted to build an overseas empire
  • In 1931, Japan invaded Manchuria and the League of Nations condemned the action
    • As a result, Japan withdrew
  • In 1937 the Japanese army invaded China again and established a puppet government in Nanjing
  • The invasion was so brutal it was called the ‘rape of Nanjing’
italy attacks ethiopia
Italy Attacks Ethiopia
  • In 1935, Italy attacked Ethiopia
  • Although they resisted, the Ethiopian army was no match for the superior Italian Army
  • The League of Nations tried to intervene but could do little to stop the Italian Army
german aggression in europe
German Aggression in Europe
  • Hitler rebuilt the German army, in direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles
  • In 1936, Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland, an area between France and Germany where German troops were forbidden to go
  • In 1938, Hitler incorporated Austria into the German empire and forced Czechoslovakia to give the Sudetenland to Germany
appeasement
Appeasement
  • Western democracies adopted a policy of appeasement
    • Nations gave in to the aggressive demands to maintain peace
  • The western democracies responded weakly to German aggression
  • At the Munich Conference in 1938, western democracies agreed that Germany should be allowed to seize the Sudetenland
world war ii begins
World War II Begins
  • Recognizing weakness, Japan, Italy, and Germany formed the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis
  • Agreed to stop the spread of communism
  • It became increasingly clear that appeasement had failed miserably
    • In March 1939, Hitler took over Czechoslovakia
    • Later, Hitler and Stalin signed a non-aggression pact
    • In September 1939, Germany invaded Poland
    • Great Britain and France declared war on Germany
military aggression leading to world war ii
Military Aggression Leading to World War II

1931

Japan invades Manchuria

1937

Japan invades China

1939

Germany invades Poland and takes Czechoslovakia

1931

Japan invades Manchuria

1936

Germany occupies Rhineland

1938

Germany invades Austria and seizes Sudetenland

the axis powers advance
The Axis Powers Advance
  • Axis Powers
    • Germany, Italy, Japan
  • Allied Powers
    • Great Britain, France
      • Later joined by China, Soviet Union, United States
the axis powers advance1
The Axis Powers Advance
  • At first, Germany and its allies dominated the war
    • Nazis conquered Poland using the tactic known as blitzkrieg
    • In April 1940, Hitler overran Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Belgium
    • By June 1940, the Germans had made it to Paris
    • Charles de Gaulle formed a French government in exile to fight Germany
turning points of the war
Turning Points of the War
  • The Axis powers won quick victories early, but there were several events after 1940 that served as turning points in the war
    • The Entry of the US (1941)
    • Battle of Stalingrad (1942-1943)
    • Invasion of Normandy (1944)
the entry of the united states 1941
The Entry of the United States (1941)
  • Initially, the US declared its neutrality in the war
  • FDR met with Winston Churchill in August of 1941 to declare their goal of ridding the world of Nazi tyranny
    • Roosevelt supplied weapons to the Allies and bans sale of arms to Japan
  • Japan launched a surprise attack on the base at Pearl Harbor on December 7 1941
  • More than 2400 people were killed and most of the ships in the US fleet were destroyed
  • The entry of the US into the war gave the Allies added strength
battle of stalingrad 1942 1943
Battle of Stalingrad (1942-1943)
  • The Germans invaded the Soviet Union in 1941
  • After steady advances, Nazi forces stalled at Moscow and Leningrad
  • Hitler turned South in 1942 towards Stalingrad
  • Russian troops and a freezing winter caused the German invaders to surrender in 1943
invasion of normandy 1944
Invasion of Normandy (1944)
  • The allies invaded France on June 6, 1944, also known as D-Day
  • Allied troops were ferried across the English Channel, landing on the beaches of Normandy
  • The Allies moved to Paris and freed France from German control
the war ends
The War Ends
  • The war in Europe ended on May 7, 1945, with the Germans’ surrender
  • Fighting in the Pacific would continue until the Japanese surrendered in August 1945
yalta conference
Yalta Conference
  • In February 1945, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met in the USSR at Yalta
  • The Allies would divide up Germany
  • Stalin would coordinate division of Eastern European governments
victory in the pacific
Victory in the Pacific
  • Japan was greatly weakened, and the US took the offensive after two Japanese fleets were severely damaged by the US in 1942
  • US ‘island-hopped’ and advanced north towards Japan
  • By 1944, US had begun bombing Japanese cities but they refused to surrender
hiroshima and nagasaki
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
  • With the war in Europe over, the Allies devoted their resources into the Pacific theater
  • Although their navy and air force were destroyed, the Japanese army remained strong
  • On August 6, 1945, an American plane dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima
    • The bomb flattened the city and killed 70,000 people
    • A second bomb, dropped on Nagasaki, killed 40,000 people
  • Militants wanted to hold out, but Emperor Hirohito force the surrender and Japan signed a treaty on September 2, 1945
technology and world war ii
Technology and World War II
  • Throughout the war, advanced technology led to more power, greater speed, and better communications
  • Technological innovation resulted in more widespread destruction than ever before
civilian life and total war
Civilian Life and Total War
  • Cities became targets
  • Democratic governments increased their power and ‘commanded’ the economies
  • Once again, women were called upon to work in factories
    • Women served as ambulance drivers, decoders, and nurses
wartime atrocities
Wartime Atrocities
  • The Holocaust
  • ‘Rape of Nanjing’
  • Bataan Death March
    • In the Philippines, Japanese soldiers forced American and Filipino prisoners of war on a march up the Bataan peninsula
    • Prisoners were beaten, stabbed, and shot
impact of world war ii1
Impact of World War II
  • Economic Losses
    • Aerial bombardment wiped whole cities off the map
    • Coventry in England; Hamburg and Dresden in Germany; and Tokyo, Hiroshima, and Nagasaki were some of the hardest hit
impact of world war ii2
Impact of World War II
  • War Crime Trials
    • During the war, Allied leaders decided they would punish those responsible for ‘crimes against humanity’
    • Nuremburg Trials led to the imprisonment or execution of 22 Nazi leaders
      • Rudolph Hoess
    • Leaders could be held accountable for their actions during war
impact of world war ii3
Impact of World War II
  • Occupied Nations
    • West Germany and Japan were occupied by democratic governments to help create new democratic governments
    • Soviet Union occupied Eastern Europe and East Germany and established communist governments back by the USSR
impact of world war ii4
Impact of World War II
  • The United Nations
    • In April 1945, the UN is created with two main bodies
      • The General Assembly, which includes representatives from all member nations
        • Each member has one vote
      • The Security Council, with 15 member nations, 5 of which are permanent
        • The US, Russia, France, Great Britain, China
unit essential questions1
Unit Essential Questions
  • What events led up to World War II?
  • How did new weapons technology affect the course of the war?
  • How were the lives of individuals affected by the war?
  • What were the major turning points of the war that helped determine its outcome?
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