QSO ABSORBER GALAXY ASSOCIATIONS
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QSO ABSORBER GALAXY ASSOCIATIONS FINDS THE KEYS AT THE LOWEST REDSHIFTS. COLORADO GROUP: JOHN STOCKE, MIKE SHULL, STEVE PENTON, CHARLES DANFORTH, BRIAN KEENEY

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QSO ABSORBER GALAXY ASSOCIATIONS FINDS THE KEYS AT THE LOWEST REDSHIFTS

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QSO ABSORBER GALAXY ASSOCIATIONSFINDS THE KEYS AT THE LOWEST REDSHIFTS

COLORADO GROUP: JOHN STOCKE, MIKE SHULL, STEVE PENTON, CHARLES DANFORTH, BRIAN KEENEY

ALUMNI: MARK GIROUX (ETSU), JASON TUMLINSON (YALE), JESSICA ROSENBERG (George Mason), MARY PUTMAN (MICHIGAN), KEVIN McLIN (SonomaState)

ELSEWHERE: RAY WEYMANN (NIRVANA), J. VAN GORKOM (COLUMBIA), CHRIS CARLLI ( NRAO)

Results based on:

> 300 QSO ABSORBERS found by HST Spectrographs at z <0.1 and at low column densities (NH I =1012.5—16.5 cm-2) AND

>1.35 Million galaxy locations and redshifts from the CfA galaxy redshift survey, 2DF/6DF, SLOAN Digital Sky Spectroscopic Survey (DR-6), FLASH & others, including our own pencil-beam surveys


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SUMMARY OF STATISTICAL RESULTS

  • COSMIC BARYON CENSUS: WLy a /Wbaryon = 29 ± 4 % (most of the mass is in NHI < 10 13 cm-2 absorbers)

  • ASSOCIATION WITH GALAXIES? 78% LOCATED IN SUPERCLUSTER FILAMENTS; 22% IN VOIDS. STRONGER absorbers at NH I > 1013 cm-2 are more closely ASSOCIATED WITH GALAXIES; WEAKER absorbers are more UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED in space.

  • Wb(voids)/ Wb = 4.5 ±1.5% AS PREDICTED BY SIMULATIONS (Gottlober et al 2003). Metallicity < 1.5% Solar (Stocke et al. 2007, ApJ, in press; Dec 20 issue)

  • At least 55% of all Ly α absorbers with NH I > 1013 cm-2 are METAL-BEARING at ~ 10% SOLAR. A typical galaxy filament is covered >50% by metal-enriched gas

  • Metal-bearing absorbers show spread of metals of 150—800h-170 kpc from the nearest L* galaxy (23 absorbers in complete sample) and 50—450 h-170 kpc from the nearest 0.1L* galaxy (9 absorbers in complete sample) based on OVI and CIII (C IV, Si III accounting in progress)

  • For details see PENTON et al. (2000a,b, 2002, 2004) ApJ (Ly alpha absorbers) and STOCKE et al. (2006) ApJ 641, 217 . (OVI absorbers)


Impact Parameters Required to reproduce the Observed OVI dN/dz(covering factor = 0.5; all galaxies of luminosity > L contribute)

Figure from

Tumlinson & Fang

2005 ApJL 623, L97 as added to by Shull, this conference

Sample Sizes = 23 9 (of metal-enriched absorbers)


GalaxyLuminosityDgal-absWind

Milky Way ~0.8 L* 5-12 kpc Bound

NGC 30670.5 L* »11 kpc Bound

IC 691 0.06 L* 35 kpc Unbound

3C 273 Dwarf 0.004 L* 70 kpc Unbound

 Dwarf galaxies may play a larger role in the chemical evolution of the intergalactic medium than their more massive counterparts.

Do Starburst Winds Escape ?(Brian Keeney, PhD dissertation)


``CLOSE-UP’’ OF A LYMAN LIMIT SYSTEM: 3C232/NGC 3067

  • OPTICAL IMAGE WITH HI 21cm CONTOURS (Carilli & van Gorkom 1992 ApJ 399, 373)

  • 3C 232 z=0.533; Absorber has NHI= 1 x 1020 cm-2 and Tspin = 500 ± 200 K (Keeney et al. 2005 ApJ 622, 267)

    NGC 3067 cz=1465 km/s 0.5L* edge-on Sb galaxy star formation rate = 1.4 Solar masses yr-1

HST GHRS NEAR-UV SPECTRA  (Tumlinson et al. 1999 AJ 118, 2148).

Three distinct metal line systems @ cz =

1370 km/s 1420 km/s (H I 21cm Absorber) 1530 km/s

Each system contains: NaI, CaII, MgI, MgII,

FeII, MnII + CIV and SiIV.


H I 21 cm velocity contours

3C 232

Reproduced from Tumlinson et al. 1999, AJ, 118, 2148.

H I 21 cm

NGC 3067

Reproduced from Keeney et al. 2005, ApJ, 622, 267.

Reproduced from Carilli & van Gorkom, 1992, ApJ, 399, 373.

Metals from Na I D to C IV are observed with the same 3 velocity components, but H I is only detected in one.

Velocity field suggests H I 21 cm cloud to be infalling (vrad = -115 km/s) unless the halo gas is counter-rotating.

3C 232 / NGC 3067


Lyman Limit Systems as HVC Analogs

NGC 3067 H I Absorber

NHI = 1.0 x 1020 cm-2

Tspin= 500 ± 200 K

Tkin = 380 ± 30 K

R(Galactocentric)= 11 kpc

Cloud Size = 5 kpc

Z > 0.25 Z8

UV fesc < 2%

Galactic HVCs

NHI > 2 x 1018 cm-2

Tspin > 200 K

R(Galactocentric) < 40 kpc

Cloud Size = 3-20 kpc

Z = 0.08-0.35 Z8

UV fesc= 1-2%

Keeney et al (2005) Putman et al (2003)

Tumlinson et al (1999) Akeson & Blitz (1999)

Collins, Shull, & Giroux (2004)

Hulsbosch & Wakker (1988)


Reproduced from Keeney et al. 2006, ApJ, 646, 951.

The Milky Way’s Nuclear Wind


Mrk 1383 Absorbers

vlsr = +46±7 +95±11 km/s

vw = +30±10 +90±15 km/s

vesc = +530±90 +520±90 km/s

zobs = +11.7±0.2 +12.2±0.3 kpc

zmax = +12.6±0.1 +12.6±0.1 kpc

PKS 2005-489 Absorbers

vlsr = -105±12 +168±10 km/s

vw = -250±20 +250±20 km/s

vesc = +560±90 +560±90 km/s

zobs = -4.9±0.2 -5.8±0.2 kpc

zmax = -10.8±0.9 -12.5±1.0 kpc

  • All four absorbers reach comparable maximum heights (|zmax| »12.5 kpc) in the Galactic gravitational potential  They were ejected from the Galactic center with comparable energies.

  • These high-velocity absorbers have similar ionization states and metallicities as highly-ionized HVCs (although we need to look w/ CHANDRA).

Milky Way Wind: Bound at 12 kpc


Reproduced from Stocke et al. 2004, ApJ, 609, 94.

Reproduced from Keeney et al. 2006, AJ, 132, 2496

3C 273 / 0.004 L* Dwarf SBS 1122+594 / IC 691 (0.06 L*)

Dwarf galaxies produce unbound winds!

Dwarf Galaxy Winds


SPECTRUM OF DWARF IS POST-STARBURST

Complete Blow Out then fading to become Dwarf Spheroidal? “Cheshire Cat Galaxy” (Charlton, 1995)

[Z]= -1±0.5; AGE=3.5±1.5 Gyrs


3C 273 Absorber/Galaxy Connections

3C 273 Absorber

cz= 1586 ± 5 km/s

NHI = 7 x 1015 cm-2

n = 1.4 x 10-3 cm-3

Shell thickness = 70 pc

Shell mass < 108 M8

(if centered on dwarf)

[Fe/H] = -1.2

[Si/C] = +0.2

Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

cz = 1635 ± 50 km/s

b= 71 h-170 kpc

mB = 17.9 MB = -13.9

 L ~ 6 x 107 L8 ~ 0.004 L*

MHI < 3 x 106 M8

[Fe/H] = -1

Mean Stellar Age = 2-5 Gyrs

STARBURST(S) totaling > 0.3 M8 yr-1 for ~108 yrs at a time 2-5 Gyrs ago had sufficient SN energy to expel > 3 X 107 M8 of gas at 20-30 km s-1 to ~100 kpc and so create the 3C 273 absorber.


IC 691: H I 21 cm

SDSS J112625.97+591737.5

czgal = 1202 ± 5 km/s

Czabs(CIV) = 1110 ± 50

km/s

MHI = (4.1 ± 0.1)

x 107 M8

vesc(D > 33 kpc) ≤

35 km/s

IC 691

SBS 1122+594 / IC 691ABSORBER/GALAXY CONNECTIONS


VOID

VOID

VOID

FILAMENT

GASEOUS FILAMENT


COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH: TO BE INSTALLED DURING SERVICING MISSION #4 IN AUGUST 2008

Observational Goals Include:

Massive Starburst Galaxy Winds

(3 QSO/galaxy pairs)

Dwarf and LSB Galaxy winds

(6 QSO/galaxy pairs)

Normal Luminous Galaxy Halos

(3 QSOs around one L* galaxy)

“Cosmic Tomography” of the Great Wall

(6 QSO sightlines in 30 Mpc2 region

BL Lac Targets to search for Broad Lyα

(7 targets totaling Δz  1.5)

Bright, long pathlength targets

(entire GTO target set yields Δz  15)


WHAT WILL BE DONE WHEN THE ``COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH’’ IS INSTALLED NEXT YEAR ON HST

The Extent, Metallicity and Kinematics of a Normal, Luminous (~L*) Spiral Galaxy Using multiple QSO sightlines


Does our Universe have the BLAs (Broad Lyα Absorbers)?(Lehner et al. 2007 ApJ 658, 680)

7 sightlines 341 Lyα absorbers with total pathlength Δz=2.06

# of BLAs # confirmed # confirmed but not confirmed

(b > 40 km/s) as BLAs narrower as absorbers

99 52 30 17

But: It is well-known that b < b (Lyα) due to streaming and turbulent motions in absorbers (Shull et al. 2000, ApJL 538, L13; Danforth et al. 2006 ApJ, 640, 716)

For Lehner et al. sample we have curve-of-growth b-values for

20 absorbers with b(Lyα) > 40 and find < b(COG)/b(Lyα) >=0.61, so that for absorbers truly at T > 105 : b (Lyα) > 65 km/s, for which, the Lehner et al. absorber numbers become:

26 6 13 7

  • BLAs do NOT add significantly to Cosmic Baryon census.


Examples of a contentious and an uncontentous BLA in theHE 0226-41110 spectrum


MEDIAN DISTANCE TO NEAREST > 0.1L* GALAXY

Sample Distance in Sample

Name h-170 kpc Size

• L* Galaxies : 350 500

  • O VI Absorbers : 290 23

  • Stronger half Ly a Sample : 450 69

  • Weaker half Ly a Sample : 1850 69

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

  • Simulations of WHIM GAS : 200 Dave’ et al

  • Simulations of Photo-ionized Gas: 1200 (1999)

  • Data from Stocke et al. 2006 ApJ 641, 217


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