Pricing Considerations and Approaches. Chapter 11. Objectives. Understand the internal factors affecting a firm’s pricing decisions. Understand the external factors affecting pricing decisions, including the impact of consumer perceptions of price and value.
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Pricing Considerations and Approaches
“Buyer-driven commerce” concept offers lower prices to consumers and the ability to sell excess inventory to sellers
13.5 million user customer base
Most deals relate to travel or time sensitive/ perishable services
Not all ventures have been profitable
Some customers find it difficult to commit to purchase prior to learning details
Price Has Many Names
MySimon is one of several independent web sites that provides product price comparisons.
Factors Affecting Price Decisions
Market positioning influences strategy
Other pricing objectives:
Current profit maximization
Market share leadership
Product quality leadership
Partial or full cost recovery
Product quality leadership:
Four Seasons starts with very high quality service, then charges a price to match.
Pricing must be carefully coordinated with the other marketing mix elements
Target costing is often used to support product positioning strategies based on price
Nonprice positioning can also be used
Swatch used target costing to manage costs carefully and create a watch offering the right blend of fashion and functions at a price consumers would pay.
Types of costs:
How costs vary at different production levels will influence price-setting
Experience (learning) curve effects on price
Cost Per Unit at Different Production Levels
Cost Per Unit As a Function of Accumulated Production
Who sets the price?
Small companies: CEO or top management
Large companies: Divisional or product line managers
Price negotiation is common in industrial settings
Some industries have pricing departments
External factors must also be considered when planning pricing strategy.
Types of markets
Consumer perceptions of price and value
Price elasticity of demand
Demand curves sometimes slope upward— Gibson learned that its high-quality guitars didn’t sell as well at lower prices
Consider competitors’ costs, prices, and possible reactions when developing a pricing strategy
Pricing strategy influences the nature of competition
Low-price low-margin strategies inhibit competition
High-price high-margin strategies attract competition
Benchmarking costs against the competition is recommended
PC marketing has become extremely price competitive.
Knowledge of competitive prices, offers, and costs is key to pricing strategy.
Affect production costs
Affect buyer perceptions of price and value
Reseller reactions to prices must be considered
Government may limit or restrict pricing options
Social considerations may be taken into account
Major Considerations in Setting Price
Cost-Based Pricing Example
Variable costs: $20 Fixed costs: $ 500,000
Expected sales: 100,000 units Desired Sales Markup: 20%
Variable Cost + Fixed Costs/Unit Sales = Unit Cost
$20 + $500,000/100,000 = $25 per unit
Unit Cost/(1 – Desired Return on Sales) = Markup Price
$25 / (1 - .20) = $31.25
Break-Even Chart for Determining Target Price
Cost-Based Versus Value-Based Pricing
Perceived value reflects more than just the functional benefits of a product. The pen at left costs $185.00
Metreo Video Clip
Pricing in business-to-business sales is often negotiable. Metreo’s software helps companies make pricing decisions.
Click the picture above to play video