Is the IGM heated by TeV blazars?
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Is the IGM heated by TeV blazars?. Dimitrios Giannios Purdue Workshop, May 12th 2014 Sironi L. and Giannios D. 2014, ApJ in press, arXiv:1312.4538. TeV blazars. Cerenkov Telescopes: Blazars dominate the extragalactic TeV sky. (credit: TEVCat). The blazar sequence:

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Dimitrios giannios purdue workshop may 12th 2014

Is the IGM heated by TeV blazars?

Dimitrios Giannios

Purdue Workshop, May 12th 2014

Sironi L. and Giannios D. 2014, ApJ in press, arXiv:1312.4538


Dimitrios giannios purdue workshop may 12th 2014

TeV blazars

Cerenkov Telescopes:

Blazars dominate the extragalactic TeV sky

(credit: TEVCat)

  • The blazar sequence:

  • a continuous sequence LBL - IBL - HBL

  • TeV blazars are dim

(Ghisellini et al 11)


Dimitrios giannios purdue workshop may 12th 2014

TeV photons are absorbed in the IGM

  • TeV photons from blazars pair-produce in the IGM by interacting with ~ eV EBL photons.

  • mean free path is ~100 Mpc

  • The beam of electron-positron pairs has:

  • Lorentz factor γ=106-107 and density ratio α=10-15-10-18(wrt the IGM plasma)

  • These pairs should IC scatter off the CMB, producing ~ GeV photons.

  • mean free path is ~ 100 kpc (IC cooling length)


Dimitrios giannios purdue workshop may 12th 2014

No excess GeV emission from blazars

Every TeV blazar should have a GeV halo of reprocessed light. However, not seen!

(Neronov & Vovk 10)


Dimitrios giannios purdue workshop may 12th 2014

1) IGM magnetic fields deflect the streaming pairs (Neronov & Vovk 10, Tavecchio et al. 11)

intrinsic TeV spectrum

Fermi upper limits

absorbed TeV spectrum

reprocessed GeV emission from pairs deflected by IGM fields

(Tavecchio et al. 11)

IGM fields or plasma instabilities?

Every TeV blazar should have a GeV halo of reprocessed light. However, not seen!

Two possibilities:

2) The pair energy is deposited into the IGM by plasma instabilities (Broderick, Chang, Pfrommer 12, 13)


Dimitrios giannios purdue workshop may 12th 2014

Two-stream (bump on tail) instability & Vovk 10, Tavecchio et al. 11)

Oblique instability

beam

energy from particles to waves: → instability

energy from waves to particles: → damping

(Sironi & Giannios 14)

Plasma instabilities in the IGM

Interpenetrating beams of charged particles are unstable (beam-plasma instabilities)

microscopic scales!

Blazar-induced relativistic pairs

IGM plasma


Dimitrios giannios purdue workshop may 12th 2014

  • IF & Vovk 10, Tavecchio et al. 11) the instability grows until all the beam energy is deposited into the IGM:

  • No reprocessed blazar GeV emission

  • IGM field estimates are invalid

  • IGM heating from blazars will have cosmological implications

(Chang et al. 12)

Beam-plasma linear evolution

Linear analysis: the oblique instability grows 10-100 times faster than the IC cooling time.

(Broderick et al. 12)

The non-linear evolution of the beam-plasma system requires PIC simulations...

Is the instability growing at the linear rate until it deposits all the beam energy into the IGM?


Dimitrios giannios purdue workshop may 12th 2014

No approximations, plasma physics at a fundamental level & Vovk 10, Tavecchio et al. 11)

Tiny length and time scales need to be resolved  huge simulations, limited time coverage

  • Relativistic 3D e.m. PIC code TRISTAN-MP (Buneman ‘93, Spitkovsky ‘05)

The PIC method

  • Particle-in-Cell (PIC) method:

  • Particle currents deposited on a grid

  • Electromagnetic fields solved on the grid via Maxwell’s equations

  • Lorentz force interpolated to particle locations

Yee mesh


Dimitrios giannios purdue workshop may 12th 2014

Relaxation phase & Vovk 10, Tavecchio et al. 11)

heating fraction

B energy

E energy

In the end, the beam longitudinal dispersion ~0.2 γ, and the plasma heating fraction ~10%

Cold beam: non-linear evolution

Blazar-induced beams: Lorentz factor γ=106-107 and density ratio α=10-15-10-18

COLD beam with γ=300 and α=10-2

Exponential phase

heating fraction

The oblique instability grows fast, but it is quenched by self-heating of the beam


Dimitrios giannios purdue workshop may 12th 2014

IGM heating fraction & Vovk 10, Tavecchio et al. 11)

(LS & Giannios 14)

  • COLD beams:

  • Regardless of the beam γ or α, the beam longitudinal dispersion reaches ~0.2 γ, and the IGM heating fraction ~10%.

  • Only 10% of the beam energy is deposited into the IGM, 90% is still available to power the reprocessed GeV emission.

10% in heat, 90% in GeV emission

Blazar-induced beams: Lorentz factor γ=106-107 and density ratio α=10-15-10-18

Numerically tractable: Lorentz factor γ=101-103 and density ratio α=10-1-10-3


Dimitrios giannios purdue workshop may 12th 2014

IGM heating fraction

(Sironi & Giannios 14)

Blazar beams are not cold

  • Blazar beams are born warm:

  • the pair production cross section peaks at ~ few mec2.

  • the TeV blazar spectrum and the EBL spectrum are broad.

distance

(Miniati et al 13)


Dimitrios giannios purdue workshop may 12th 2014

Is the IGM heated by TeV blazars? & Vovk 10, Tavecchio et al. 11)

Not much.


Dimitrios giannios purdue workshop may 12th 2014

Long term beam-plasma evolution & Vovk 10, Tavecchio et al. 11)

Beam-aligned electric field

Magnetic energy

beam

beam

z [c/ωp]

z [c/ωp]

x [c/ωp]

x [c/ωp]

y [c/ωp]

y [c/ωp]

(Sironi & Giannios, in prep.)

  • At the end of the relaxation phase, the beam-plasma system is still highly anisotropic, so still unstable (to the Weibel instability).

  • Blazar-induced pair beams might be a potential mechanism for generating small-scale (~ c/ωp ~ 108 cm) magnetic fields in cosmic voids?


Dimitrios giannios purdue workshop may 12th 2014

Summary & Vovk 10, Tavecchio et al. 11)

  • TeV photons from blazars will pair-produce in the IGM. The resulting electron-positron beam is unstable to the excitation of plasma instabilities.

  • Electrostatic plasma instabilities deposit ≪10% of the beam energy into the IGM. Most of the beam energy will result in GeV emission by IC scattering off the CMB.

  • After the saturation of electrostatic plasma instabilities, the beam is still anisotropic, and it can generate magnetic fields from scratch via the Weibel instability.


Dimitrios giannios purdue workshop may 12th 2014

suppressed

(Miniati et al 13)

10% in heat: a generous upper limit

  • The heating fraction can be ≪10%:

  • if the initial longitudinal beam dispersion is already > 0.2 γ.

  • if pre-existing magnetic fields are dispersing the beam sideways.

→ suppression


Dimitrios giannios purdue workshop may 12th 2014

Beam distribution function & Vovk 10, Tavecchio et al. 11)


Dimitrios giannios purdue workshop may 12th 2014

The complete evolution & Vovk 10, Tavecchio et al. 11)


Dimitrios giannios purdue workshop may 12th 2014

The complete evolution & Vovk 10, Tavecchio et al. 11)


Dimitrios giannios purdue workshop may 12th 2014

The complete evolution & Vovk 10, Tavecchio et al. 11)


Dimitrios giannios purdue workshop may 12th 2014

Dependence on the beam properties & Vovk 10, Tavecchio et al. 11)


Dimitrios giannios purdue workshop may 12th 2014

Dependence on the beam temperature & Vovk 10, Tavecchio et al. 11)