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Use of Virtual Reality for Teleoperation of Autonomous Vehicles. Michael A. Steffen Jeffrey D. Will Noriyuki Murakami. 2007 National Conferences on Undergraduate Research April 12-14, 2007. About the Authors. Michael A. Steffen BSME from Valparaiso University, May 2007

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use of virtual reality for teleoperation of autonomous vehicles

Use of Virtual Reality for Teleoperation of Autonomous Vehicles

Michael A. Steffen

Jeffrey D. Will

Noriyuki Murakami

2007 National Conferences on Undergraduate Research

April 12-14, 2007

about the authors
About the Authors
  • Michael A. Steffen
    • BSME from Valparaiso University, May 2007
    • BSEE from Valparaiso University, May 2007
  • Dr. Jeffrey D. Will
    • Assistant Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering
  • Dr. Noriyuki Murakami
    • Japans National Agriculture Research Center
the vehicle
The Vehicle
  • Global Position Sensor (GPS)
  • Hydrostatic transmission
  • Fiber optic gyro sensor
  • Wireless Network
  • On board Computer
  • Camera
introduction to teleoperation
Introduction to Teleoperation
  • Ability to control a vehicle from a remote location
  • The result is removing the operator from the vehicle
  • How does Teleoperation fit into the future of vehicle automation?
    • Fleet management
    • Human control for special cases not covered by automation
current system 2d
Current System (2D)
  • Provides location of vehicle
    • Birds eye view
    • Uses satellite images
  • Provides control of vehicle implements and movement
targeted improvements
Targeted Improvements
  • Provide the operator with more information about the environment and vehicle location
    • Move to a 3-Dimensional virtual environment
      • Further detail about land contours and object shape and locations
    • Large display system
      • View environment and vehicle in 1:1 scale
    • Stereo vision
      • Give the operator the feeling of being on the site of the vehicle
virtual reality system at valparaiso university scientific visualization laboratory svl
Virtual Reality System at Valparaiso University Scientific Visualization Laboratory (SVL)
  • VisBox-X2
    • 12’ x 9’ screen
    • Passive Stereo
    • wireless head tracker
    • 6 DOF tracked input device
method used
Method Used
  • Need computer models for visualization
    • Environment model
    • Vehicle model
  • Vehicle Model
    • Contains details of the vehicle
environment model
Environment Model
  • Contains details of Japans National Agriculture Research Center
  • Texture Map applied to the virtual ground floor was created from Google Maps
  • Building and landscaping objects were placed in the model using Google Maps for location

(2048 X 2048)

creating a virtual environment
Creating a Virtual Environment
  • OpenSceneGraph (OSG) is a 3-D computer graphics toolkit allowing stereo-vision visualization
  • OSG allows for models to be loaded and visualized in a VR environment
  • A transform matrix is applied to the vehicle model allowing for transformations and rotations
heading calculations
Heading Calculations
  • Using previous and current position
    • Problems when vehicle turned about its center
  • Using fiber optic gyro sensor on vehicle and include in communication protocol
communication protocol
Communication Protocol
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
    • Allows the Internet to be used as the network
tests and results
Tests and Results
  • Tests were set up to test specific functions along the design
    • Visualization
    • Implement Control
    • Drive
    • High Level Functions
    • Field Test
visualization test
Visualization Test
  • Tests visualization of vehicle in VR environment
  • Test route was planed (See picture)
  • Vehicle was driven by an onboard operator
results from test
Results from test
  • Communication protocol is working
  • Location of the vehicle is visually correct
  • Stereo-vision model is working
implement control test
Implement Control Test
  • Test communication to the vehicle
  • Test operation of
    • Left/Right blinker
    • Horn
    • Engine On/Off
    • Biter On/Off
high level function test
High Level Function Test
  • GoTo Function
    • Specify X,Y location from base point
    • Vehicle automatically travels to location
results from goto function
Results from GoTo Function
  • Vehicle did not reach target location
    • Vehicle received correct location and began traveling in target direction
    • Vehicle would stop half way to target location
driving test
Driving Test
  • Tests control of vehicle from SVL
  • Test determined that heading is not reliable when calculated from position
field test
Field Test
  • Drive to a specified point and back
  • Field tests
    • Unable to perform due to snow condition in fields
conclusion
Conclusion
  • This research has demonstrated the feasibility of real-time teleoperation of a semi-autonomous vehicle
  • Immersive environment allows for
    • Increased sense of realization
    • More accurate control
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