Use of virtual reality for teleoperation of autonomous vehicles
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Use of Virtual Reality for Teleoperation of Autonomous Vehicles. Michael A. Steffen Jeffrey D. Will Noriyuki Murakami. 2007 National Conferences on Undergraduate Research April 12-14, 2007. About the Authors. Michael A. Steffen BSME from Valparaiso University, May 2007

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Use of Virtual Reality for Teleoperation of Autonomous Vehicles

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Use of virtual reality for teleoperation of autonomous vehicles

Use of Virtual Reality for Teleoperation of Autonomous Vehicles

Michael A. Steffen

Jeffrey D. Will

Noriyuki Murakami

2007 National Conferences on Undergraduate Research

April 12-14, 2007


About the authors

About the Authors

  • Michael A. Steffen

    • BSME from Valparaiso University, May 2007

    • BSEE from Valparaiso University, May 2007

  • Dr. Jeffrey D. Will

    • Assistant Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering

  • Dr. Noriyuki Murakami

    • Japans National Agriculture Research Center


Location of tests

Location of Tests

10,000 Km


The vehicle

The Vehicle

  • Global Position Sensor (GPS)

  • Hydrostatic transmission

  • Fiber optic gyro sensor

  • Wireless Network

  • On board Computer

  • Camera


Introduction to teleoperation

Introduction to Teleoperation

  • Ability to control a vehicle from a remote location

  • The result is removing the operator from the vehicle

  • How does Teleoperation fit into the future of vehicle automation?

    • Fleet management

    • Human control for special cases not covered by automation


Current system 2d

Current System (2D)

  • Provides location of vehicle

    • Birds eye view

    • Uses satellite images

  • Provides control of vehicle implements and movement


Targeted improvements

Targeted Improvements

  • Provide the operator with more information about the environment and vehicle location

    • Move to a 3-Dimensional virtual environment

      • Further detail about land contours and object shape and locations

    • Large display system

      • View environment and vehicle in 1:1 scale

    • Stereo vision

      • Give the operator the feeling of being on the site of the vehicle


Virtual reality system at valparaiso university scientific visualization laboratory svl

Virtual Reality System at Valparaiso University Scientific Visualization Laboratory (SVL)

  • VisBox-X2

    • 12’ x 9’ screen

    • Passive Stereo

    • wireless head tracker

    • 6 DOF tracked input device


Method used

Method Used

  • Need computer models for visualization

    • Environment model

    • Vehicle model

  • Vehicle Model

    • Contains details of the vehicle


Environment model

Environment Model

  • Contains details of Japans National Agriculture Research Center

  • Texture Map applied to the virtual ground floor was created from Google Maps

  • Building and landscaping objects were placed in the model using Google Maps for location

(2048 X 2048)


Creating a virtual environment

Creating a Virtual Environment

  • OpenSceneGraph (OSG) is a 3-D computer graphics toolkit allowing stereo-vision visualization

  • OSG allows for models to be loaded and visualized in a VR environment

  • A transform matrix is applied to the vehicle model allowing for transformations and rotations


Heading calculations

Heading Calculations

  • Using previous and current position

    • Problems when vehicle turned about its center

  • Using fiber optic gyro sensor on vehicle and include in communication protocol


Communication protocol

Communication Protocol

  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

    • Allows the Internet to be used as the network


User input

User Input


Tests and results

Tests and Results

  • Tests were set up to test specific functions along the design

    • Visualization

    • Implement Control

    • Drive

    • High Level Functions

    • Field Test


Visualization test

Visualization Test

  • Tests visualization of vehicle in VR environment

  • Test route was planed (See picture)

  • Vehicle was driven by an onboard operator


Results from test

Results from test

  • Communication protocol is working

  • Location of the vehicle is visually correct

  • Stereo-vision model is working


Implement control test

Implement Control Test

  • Test communication to the vehicle

  • Test operation of

    • Left/Right blinker

    • Horn

    • Engine On/Off

    • Biter On/Off


High level function test

High Level Function Test

  • GoTo Function

    • Specify X,Y location from base point

    • Vehicle automatically travels to location


Results from goto function

Results from GoTo Function

  • Vehicle did not reach target location

    • Vehicle received correct location and began traveling in target direction

    • Vehicle would stop half way to target location


Driving test

Driving Test

  • Tests control of vehicle from SVL

  • Test determined that heading is not reliable when calculated from position


Field test

Field Test

  • Drive to a specified point and back

  • Field tests

    • Unable to perform due to snow condition in fields


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • This research has demonstrated the feasibility of real-time teleoperation of a semi-autonomous vehicle

  • Immersive environment allows for

    • Increased sense of realization

    • More accurate control


Thank you for your time

Thank You For Your Time

Questions?


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