Stress management and resiliency
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Stress Management and Resiliency. Overview. Definition/Effects of Stress Elements of Stress Reactions to Stress Defense Mechanisms Coping Strategies Time Management Elements of Resiliency Exercise. Defining Stress. Mental, emotional, or physical tension, strain, or distress.

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Stress Management and Resiliency


Overview

  • Definition/Effects of Stress

  • Elements of Stress

  • Reactions to Stress

  • Defense Mechanisms

  • Coping Strategies

  • Time Management

  • Elements of Resiliency

  • Exercise


Defining Stress

Mental, emotional, or physical tension, strain, or distress.

An environment filled with reinforcing or opposing forces that either stimulate or inhibit performance.


Effects

  • Takes $500 billion from economy yearly

  • Adversely affects health of half the adult population

  • Costs $550 million in workdays lost each year

  • Leads to 40% of U.S. worker turnover

  • Is a factor in 60-80% job accidents


Elements of Stress

  • A balance or imbalance of:

    • Driving Forces (stressors)

    • Restraining Forces (resiliency)


Elements of Stress

Current Level of Functioning

Restraining Force A

Driving Force A

Driving Force B

Restraining Force B

Restraining Force C

Driving Force C

Driving Force D

Restraining Force D

Modified from Lewin’s Force Field


Elements of Stress

  • Driving Forces (Stressors)

    • Time: too much in too little time

    • Encounters: interpersonal issues

    • Situation: long hours/changes

    • Anticipatory: expected tense climate


Elements of Stress

  • Restraining Forces (Resiliency)

    • Physiological: cardiovascular conditioning & dietary control

    • Psychological: control, commitment, challenge develops “hardiness”

    • Social: friendships, mentor relationships, task teams


Reactions to Stress

  • General Reactions

    • Alarm

    • Resistance

    • Exhaustion


Reactions to Stress

  • Managerial Reactions

    • Narrow View (tunnel vision)

    • Intolerant & Demanding

    • Fixate on Single Approach

    • Adopt a Crisis Mentality

    • Oversimplify Issues

    • Consult Others Less Often

    • Rely on Old Habits

    • Less Creative Problem Solving


Defense Mechanisms

  • Aggression - attack the stressor

  • Regression - childish

  • Repression - denial

  • Withdrawal - attention gap/escape

  • Fixation - pointless persistence


Coping Strategies

  • Enactive – creating non-stress environment

  • Proactive – increasing resiliency

  • Reactive – short-term

Managing Stress

Enactive Strategies

Proactive Strategies

Reactive Strategies

Purpose

Eliminate stressors

Develop resiliency strategies

Learn temporary coping mechanisms

Effects

Approach

Permanent

Long Term

Short Term

Time

Required

Enactive

Proactive

Reactive

Long Time

Moderate Time

Immediate


Time Management

  • Long-term – Effective

  • Short-term – Efficient

  • Focus on effectiveness before efficiency


Time Management

3

1

High

Importance

2

4

Low

High

Low

Urgency


Time Management

  • Efficient Techniques

    • Hold routine day-end meetings

    • Hold short stand-up meetings

    • Set meeting time deadlines

    • Cancel light-agenda meetings

    • Set agenda

    • Stick to it

    • Keep track of time

    • Start meetings on time


Time Management

  • Efficient Techniques

    • Prepare minutes, follow up on decisions

    • Insist followers suggest solutions

    • Meet visitors in office doorway

    • Visit subordinates’ office for brief meetings

    • Don’t over-schedule your day

    • Have someone else take calls, scan email

    • Have place to work uninterrupted

    • Do something definitive w/every piece of paper


Time Management

  • Efficient Techniques

    • Keep work area clean

    • Delegate work

    • Identify amount of effort

    • Give others credit for success


Elements of Resiliency

The ability to withstand, recover and/or grow in the face of stressors and changing demands.

Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health


Elements of Resiliency

Total Human Wellness

  • Physical Fitness

  • Mental Fitness

  • Social Fitness

  • Spiritual Fitness


Elements of Resiliency

Physical Fitness

  • Managing your levels of stress

  • Good nutrition/Eating well

  • Getting enough rest

  • Regular Exercise


Elements of Resiliency

Mental Fitness

  • Take breaks and relax muscles

  • Maintain positive self-esteem


Elements of Resiliency

Social Fitness

  • Talk to family, friends, physician, chaplain

  • Build and maintain social support

  • Get involved in community and group activities

  • Be a Wingman!

  • Maintain positive self-esteem


Elements of Resiliency

Spiritual Fitness

  • Maintain a sense of purpose

  • Strengthen faith


Elements of Resiliency

Effective Problem Solving

  • Accurately assess situations

  • Generate a list of viable options

  • Use this information to determine a best course of action


Elements of Resiliency

Reenergizing

  • Regulate nutritional balance

  • Take part in periodic recreation

  • Enjoy downtime

  • Get adequate rest


Elements of Resiliency

Positive Orientation

Why might a positive orientation (outlook) be difficult for some?


Elements of Resiliency

Positive Orientation

What type things can you do to maintain a positive outlook on life?


Elements of Resiliency

Positive Orientation

Consider these actions:

  • Focus upon positives such as gratitude, blessings, delights, interest, and love

  • Cope with hard times through laughter, humor, and fun

  • Make time to play and have fun

  • Increase contacts and support from others

  • Practice letting go and coping with surprises type things can you do to maintain a positive outlook on life?


Exercise

  • Step 1: Keep one-week time log

  • Step 2: Record required vs. discretionary time

  • Step 3: Rate activity productivity

  • Step 4: Create plan for discretionary time

  • Step 5: ID more productive use of discretionary time


Summary

  • Definition/Effects of Stress

  • Elements of Stress

  • Reactions to Stress

  • Defense Mechanisms

  • Coping Strategies

  • Time Management

  • Developing Resiliency

  • Exercise


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