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Lecture 2 Outline (Ch. 8, 9). Energy Thermodynamics Metabolism and Chemical Reactions V. Cellular Energy - ATP Enzymes & Regulation Cell Respiration Redox Reactions Glycolysis Coenzyme Junction VII. Preparation for next Lecture. Energy. What is Energy?.

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slide2

Lecture 2 Outline (Ch. 8, 9)

  • Energy
  • Thermodynamics
  • Metabolism and Chemical Reactions
  • V. Cellular Energy - ATP
  • Enzymes & Regulation
  • Cell Respiration
    • Redox Reactions
    • Glycolysis
    • Coenzyme Junction
  • VII. Preparation for next Lecture
slide3

Energy

What is Energy?

Where does energy on earth come from originally?

[equivalent of 40 million billion calories per second!]

Types of Energy:

- Kinetic Energy = energy of movement

- Potential = stored energy

slide4

Energy

Potential Energy

Kinetic Energy

Thermodynamics – study of energy transformation in a system

Potential energy can be converted to kinetic energy (& vice versa)

slide5

Thermodynamics

Laws of Thermodynamics: Explain the characteristics of energy

  • 1st Law:
      • Energy is conserved
          • Energy is not created or destroyed
          • Energy can be converted (Chemical  Heat)

2nd Law:

  • During conversions, amount of useful energy decreases
  • No process is 100% efficient
  • Entropy (measure of disorder) is increased

Energy is converted from moreordered to less ordered forms

slide7

Metabolism and Energy

Cells convert molecules chemically using cellular energy.

slide8

Metabolism

Metabolism – chemical conversions in an organism

Metabolic reactions: All chemical reactions in organism

  • Anabolic = builds up molecules

Catabolic = breaks down molecules

Two Types of Metabolic Reactions

slide9

Chemical Reactions

+

+

Reactants

Products

  • Chemical Reaction:
    • Process that makes and breaks chemical bonds
  • Two Types of Chemical Reactions:
    • 1) Exergonic = releases energy
    • 2) Endergonic = requires energy
slide10

Metabolism

  • Metabolic reactions:
    • Chemical reactions in organism

Two Types of Metabolic Reactions:

  • Anabolic = build up

Catabolic = break down

Exergonic = release energy

Endergonic = requires energy

slide11

Chemical Reactions

Glucose  CO2 + H20

CO2 + H20 Glucose

-ΔG

+ΔG (or 0)

release energy

intake energy

spontaneous

non-spontaneous

• Exergonic reaction

• Endergonic reaction

slide12

Question/Recall: Which has more order? Stores more energy? Polymer or Monomer, Diffused or Concentrated H+? What is relationship between order and energy?

slide13

What type of energy is stored in a covalent bond?

A. Kinetic energy

B. Diffused energy

C. Heat energy

D. Potential energy

E. Conventional energy

slide14

Cellular Energy - ATP

• ATP = adenosine triphosphate

• ribose, adenine, 3 phosphates

• last (terminal) phosphate - removable

Be able to diagram ATP! 

slide15

ATP + H2O ADP + Pi

Cellular Energy - ATP

• ATP hydrolyzed to ADP

• Exergonic

• Energy released, used in another reactions (endergonic)

slide16

Cellular Energy - ATP

• ATP regenerated

• cells power ATP generation by coupling to exergonic reactions

Like cellular respiration!

slide18

Making ATP from ADP + Pi is…

  • Exergonic because it releases energy
  • Endergonic because it requires energy
  • Exergonic because it requires energy
  • Endergonic because it releases energy
slide19

Chemical Reactions

  • Chemical Reactions:
    • Like home offices – tend toward disorder
  • Endergonic – energy taken in; Exergonic – energy given off

Exergonic

Endergonic

slide21

Chemical Reactions

Nucleus

Nucleus

Repel

Activation

Energy

Activation

Energy

Nucleus

Nucleus

Repel

Activation Energy: Energy required to “jumpstart” a chemical

reaction

  • Must overcome repulsion of molecules due to negative
  • charged electrons
slide22

Chemical Reactions

  • Exergonic Reaction:
    • Reactants have more energy than products

Activation energy:

Make sugar and O2 molecules collide

sugar + O2

water + CO2

“Downhill” reaction

slide23

Respiration (ch. 9) preview

Cellular Respiration Equation:

C6H12O6 + O2 CO2 + H2O

You will need to KNOW this equation.

slide24

Chemical Reactions and Enzymes

Enzymes

• lower activation energy only for specific reactions

• cell chooses which reactions proceed!

enzymes:

cannot make rxns go that wouldn’t otherwise

Cannot change endergonic into exergonic rxns

Dospeed up rxns that would occur anyway

slide25

Enzymes

• Enzymes – control rate of chemical reaction

• sucrase – enzyme sucrose breakdown

“-ase” enzyme

• sucrase – catalyst

-speed up rxn, but not consumed

slide26

Enzymes

• enzyme – specific to substrate

• active site – part of enzyme -substrate

• binding tightens fit – induced fit

• form enzyme-substrate complex

• catalytic part of enzyme: converts reactant(s) to product(s)

slide27

Enzymes

• Enzymes lowers EA by:

-template orientation

-stress bonds

• substrate(s) enter

-microenvironment

• enzyme reused

• product(s) formed

• What factors might affect enzyme activity?

slide28

Enzymes

• inhibitors:

binds & blocks active site

binds allosteric site – alters conformation

• Drug – blocks HIV enzyme at the active site

slide29

If a competitive inhibitor is in an enzyme reaction, can you reverse the inhibition by adding more substrate?

  • Yes
  • No
  • I’m not sure
  • Wait, what’s a competitive inhibitor?
slide31

Cellular Respiration

Overall purpose:

• convert food to energy

• animals AND plants

• complementary to photosynthesis

slide32

Cellular Respiration:

(Exergonic)

Cellular Respiration

• catabolizes sugars to CO2

• requires O2

• at mitochondrion

slide33

Redox Reactions

• as part of chemical reaction, e- are transferred

• e- transfer = basis of REDOX reactions

(reduction) (oxidation)

slide34

Redox Reactions

Use “H rule” for reactions in this class

Reactant with more H’s = e donor, will be oxidized

Reactant with more O’s = e acceptor, will be reduced

ZH2 + O2 yields ZO + H2O

• follow the H, e- move with them

slide35

Self-Check

Oxygen

ZH2

slide36

Redox Reactions

Equation for respiration

slide37

Redox Reactions

• transfer of e- to oxygen is stepwise

slide38

• glucose NADH ETC O2 (makes H2O)

Redox Reactions

• e- moved by NAD/H (from niacin/vit B3)

• NADH  carry e- (reduced!)

• NAD+  not carrying e- (oxidized!)

Where do e- come from?

Where do e- go?

slide39

In this equation is NAD+ to NADH oxidized or reduced?

NAD+ + H+ + 2e-  NADH

  • Reduced, it gained electrons
  • Oxidized, it gained electrons
  • Reduced, it lost electrons
  • Oxidized, it lost electrons
slide40

Steps of Respiration

• Steps of respiration:

1. glycolysis

2 CO2

Coenzyme Junction

2. Citric acid cycle

4 CO2

3. ETC

4. Chemiosmosis

slide41

Cellular Respiration

• Stages of respiration:

1. Glycolysis – prep carbons

slide42

Cellular Respiration

1. Glycolysis

• 1 glucose (6C) 2 pyruvate (3C)

• Keep track of:

- inputs

- ATP

- NAD+/NADH

- CO2 and H2O

- outputs

• eukaryotes AND prokaryotes

slide43

Glucose

Glucose-6-phosphate

ATP

2

1

ADP

Fructose-6-phosphate

Glucose-6-phosphate

Glycolysis

slide44

ATP

Fructose-

1, 6-bisphosphate

ADP

4

5

Glyceraldehyde-

3-phosphate

Dihydroxyacetone

phosphate

Glycolysis

slide45

2 ADP

2 ATP

Phosphoenolpyruvate

2

2 ADP

10

2 ATP

Pyruvate

2

Glycolysis

Step not shown

slide47

Cellular Respiration

Glycolysis

-inputs:

1 Glucose

2 ATP

-outputs:

2 pyruvate

4 ATP (2 net)

2 NADH

CO2 = none yet

(2 H2O)

Where do the outputs go?

slide48

Energy production

Mitochondria

• energy from nutrients  ATP

slide49

Cellular Respiration

Coenzyme Junction

• 2 pyruvate (3C) 2 Acetyl CoA (2C)

• pyruvate joins coenzyme A (from vitamin B5)

• 2 carbons lost (as CO2)

• 2 NAD+  NADH

slide50

Things To Do After Lecture 2…

  • Reading and Preparation:
  • Re-read today’s lecture, highlight all vocabulary you do not understand, and look up terms.
  • Ch. 8 Self-Quiz: #1-6 (correct answers in back of book)
  • Read chapter 9, focus on material covered in lecture (terms, concepts, and figures!)
  • Skim next lecture.
  • “HOMEWORK” (NOT COLLECTED – but things to think about for studying):
  • Describe the relationship between exergonic/endergonic, catabolic/anabolic, and “uphill”/”downhill” chemical reactions
  • Diagram one molecule of ATP and how ADP is different
  • Cut apart the boxes on the previous sheet – match up three (name, energy balance, basic reaction) for glycolysis and three for the coenzyme junction
  • Place the following molecules in order for when they are used/created during glycolysis: fructose-6-phosphate, glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, pyruvate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
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