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Chapter 10: World War I (the Great War) 1914-1920. Key Vocabulary Terms. Militarism – the belief that a nation needs a large military force Central Powers – Austria-Hungary, Germany, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria

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Chapter 10: World War I (the Great War) 1914-1920

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Chapter 10:World War I (the Great War)1914-1920

Key Vocabulary Terms

  • Militarism – the belief that a nation needs a large military force

  • Central Powers – Austria-Hungary, Germany, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria

  • Allied Powers (Allies) – Serbia, Russia, France, Great Britain, Italy, and seven other countries

  • Trench warfare – tunnels dug to protect soldiers during battle, often rat infested

  • U-boats – German submarines

  • Woodrow Wilson – U.S. President during WWI

  • Neutrality – refusing to take sides in a war

  • Zimmerman telegram – a German telegram trying to get Mexico to join the Central Powers, in return Germany would help Mexico reclaim its “lost” territories of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona

  • John J. Pershing – U.S. General in France

  • American Expeditionary Force (AEF) – a separate U.S. force fighting in WWI

  • Convoy system – a heavy guard of destroyers escort merchant ships across the Atlantic in groups, trying to avoid U-boat attacks

  • Second Battle of the Marne – turning point of the war, summer 1918

  • Armistice – an end to fighting

  • War bonds – civilians loan money to the gov't, in return they get interest back

  • Propaganda – advertising trying to influence opinions and actions of others

  • Espionage and Sedition Acts – illegal to criticize the war, fines and prison time

  • Great Migration – 500,000 African Americans moved to the North to escape poverty and violence between 1910 and 1920

  • League of Nations – international organization to solve differences through negotiation

  • Fourteen Points – President Wilson's speech to Congress about his plans for peace

  • Treaty of Versailles – peace treaty formally ending WWI, blamed Germany for the war

  • Reparations – money paid by the losing country of a war to pay for the destruction

  • Red Scare – panic from fear of communism

WWI Timeline

  • 1914 – Archduke Ferdinand assassinated (WWI begins) and Panama Canal opens

  • 1915 – Lusitania sunk by German U-boat

  • 1916 – Wilson reelected

  • 1917 – Wilson asks Congress to declare war on Germany

  • 1918 – Wilson suggests League of Nations, Russia withdraws from WWI, Allies win war

  • 1919 – Treaty of Versailles is signed

Causes of WWI

  • The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary and his wife started the Great War, or World War I, but it had four other main causes:

  • Imperialism – Britain, France, Italy and Germany wanted to expand their territories

  • Nationalism – Europeans were very proud, loyal, and protective of their own countries and wanted to prove they were the best

  • Militarism – belief that a country needs a strong military, major powers built up their armies and navies

  • Alliances – relying on others to come to your aid in a time of need, most countries in Europe had alliances so any small incident could start a large-scale war

  • Two groups of alliances formed:

    • Central Powers – Austria-Hungary, Germany, Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria

    • Allied Powers (Allies) – Serbia, Russia, France, Great Britain, Italy, and others

Trench Warfare

  • Trench warfare helped to protect the soldiers by keeping them partially covered but also made the fighting last longer

  • Trenches were often rat infested

  • Even though millions of lives were lost at battles like the Marne and the Somme, each side only gained a few miles of territory

  • Trenches stretched for miles across Europe

New Technology

  • Tanks were invented by the British which could crash through barbed wire and roll over trenches

  • Machine guns helped soldiers fire over 600 bullets per minute

  • Poison gases were used by both sides and killed or injured thousands of soldiers

  • U-boats (submarines) were invented by Germany which allowed them to sneak attack other ships in the water


  • The British ship the Lusitania was sunk while carrying ammunition for the Allies and American citizens

  • Germany had warned Americans not to travel on the ocean – U-boat attacks

Neutrality Turns To War

  • President Woodrow Wilson had announced a policy of neutrality for the U.S. in the war

  • Germany sent a coded telegram to Mexico asking them to join the Central Powers, but the British found the message and warned the United States

  • With the sinking of the Lusitania and the Zimmerman Telegram, he decided the U.S. needed to defend themselves

Americans Join the Allies

  • Russians had withdrawn from the Allied Powers and the Germans (Central Powers) were winning

  • In 1918, over one million U.S. troops went to help the French fight against the Germans

  • Second Battle of the Marne was the turning point of the war, the Allies were able to push the Germans back and take control of the war

  • By November 1918, Germans stopped fighting, the Kaiser stepped down, and they signed an armistice (11a.m., 11/11)

Home Front

  • Life at home changed when men left jobs to fight in Europe

  • Women began working in factories and railroad freight yards, they also grew “victory gardens” which allowed more food to be sent to the soldiers

  • School children gathered materials that were used to make war goods and rolled bandages for injured soldiers

Advertising and Suspicion

  • President Wilson made a committee to create war supporters, they made suggestive advertisements called propaganda – posters to encourage support for the war and war efforts

  • The Espionage and Sedition Acts were a result of suspicion of German people and products

    • These laws made it illegal to criticize the war or help draft resisters (avoiding war), long prison terms and large fines

Great Migration

  • African Americans moved from the South to Northern factories to find jobs

  • They were also leaving discrimination, poverty, and racial violence

  • Between 1910 and 1920, 500,000 African Americans moved from the South to cities like New York, Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, and St. Louis

  • The Southwest was also growing during this time, Mexicans were looking for work and escaping a revolution in Mexico

Legacy of World War I

  • President Wilson gave a speech of his ideas for peace, it was named for the fourteen points he had

  • The last of Wilson's points was to create an international peace keeping organization, which was created and called the League of Nations

  • The Treaty of Versailles formally ended the war and placed all of the blame on Germany, it also required them to pay reparations – money to repay the winners

Tension Builds...Again

  • Germany grew angry over the Treaty of Versailles over the next few years

  • Labor strikes in the United States after the war created a fear of communist activities and a fear of communism called the Red Scare

  • Palmer raids were going on all over, police would barge in looking for radicals

  • African Americans that fought in WWI came home to find they still had no respect or equality in the country they fought for

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