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風力發電機製作 及 相關物理計算 MAKING OF WIND TURBINE AND RELATED CALCULATION

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風力發電機製作 及 相關物理計算 MAKING OF WIND TURBINE AND RELATED CALCULATION. 香港理工大學 應用物理學系學生 翟振亨 HKPU Applied Physics Student Chka Chun Hang. 目錄. 引言 理論 發電機的設計 製作過程 相關計算 演示. Where do winds come from? 風從哪裡來 ?. Because of the temperature differences( 溫差 ) around the world. Surface Wind.

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making of wind turbine and related calculation
風力發電機製作

相關物理計算

MAKING OF WIND TURBINE

AND RELATED CALCULATION

香港理工大學

應用物理學系學生

翟振亨

HKPU

Applied Physics Student

Chka Chun Hang

slide2
目錄
  • 引言
  • 理論
  • 發電機的設計
  • 製作過程
  • 相關計算
  • 演示
where do winds come from
Where do winds come from?風從哪裡來?
  • Because of the temperature differences(溫差) around the world

Surface Wind

Convection updraft of rising warm Air

what is wind turbine
What is wind turbine(風力發電機)?

Wind’s kinetic energy(動能)

-> electrical energy(電能)

theory
Theory理論
  • By Lenz’s Law (冷次定律)

Induced current(感生電流) opposes(對抗)the change of the magnetic force

Heinrich Lenz

海因里希·冷次

induced emf
Induced emf-感生電壓

Where ,

  • N is the number of turn of coil,
  • B is the magnetic field strength

(磁場強度)

  • A is the area(面積) of the coil
design 3d view6
Design-設計 (3D View)

Supporting Base

支撐底部

material
Material-物料
  • Screw(螺絲) x 8 Bearing(滾珠軸承)x 2
  • Wooden borad(5”x10”) Wooden board(2”x10”)
  • Copper wire(漆皮銅線) Chopstick(筷子) x 3
  • Water bottle(水樽) Magnet (磁石)x 4
  • LED 燈x 1 CD case x 1
  • )
making process
Making Process-製作過程
  • 1. Preparing the material
making process1
Making Process-製作過程
  • 2.making the frame(骨架) and base

1

2

3

making process3
Making Process-製作過程
  • 3. Assembly(集合) the CD case and the base

1

3

4

2

making process4
Making Process-製作過程
  • 4. making the coil by the copper wire
making process5
Making Process-製作過程
  • 5. assembly to the CD case
making process6
Making Process-製作過程
  • 5. assembly to the CD case
making process7
Making Process-製作過程
  • 6. making the rotor(轉片)
making process8
Making Process-製作過程
  • 6. making the rotor (轉片)

2

3

1

making process9
Making Process-製作過程
  • 7. making the turbine(渦輪)

1

3

2

4

making process10
Making Process-製作過程
  • 7. making the turbine (渦輪)

5

7

6

making process11
Making Process-製作過程
  • 8. assembly all the component(部件)
slide32

Calculation

相關計算

power of wind turbine
Power(功率) of Wind turbine
  • kinetic energy of a mass in motions is:
  • The power in the wind is given by the rate ofchange of energy:
  • As mass flow rate is given by:
power of wind turbine1
Power (功率) of Wind turbine
  • Also, the rate of change of distance is given by:
  • we get:
  • Hence, the power can be defined as:
power of wind turbine2
Power (功率) of Wind turbine

Power coefficient(功率系數),

Cpmax= 0.59

Therefore, the extractable power:

No wind turbine can convert(轉換)more than 16/27 (59.3%) of the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical energy turning a rotor.

German physicist

Albert Betz

Picture captured from http://www.eoearth.org/article/Betz,_Albert

power of wind turbine3
Power (功率) of Wind turbine
  • For this turbine,

假設 ,

  • Power Coefficient(功率系數), Cp = 0.5
  • Air density(密度), ρ = 1.23 kg/m3
  • Area of blades(扇葉), A= 0.04*0.2 = 0.008 m2

Wind speed(風速), v = 20km/h = 5.56 m/sec

所以,

  • P = ½*0.5*1.23*0.008*5.563

= 0.423 W

induced voltage1
Induced voltage-感生電壓
  • Normally, an AAbattery(電池) is having 1.5V
factor
Factor (影響因素)

Factor(影響因素) of output voltage:

  • Wind speed(風速)
  • Strength of magnet(磁石強度)
  • *The number ofturns of coil, N(線圈圈數)
  • *Internal resistance of wire, r(電線內阻)
  • Since因為 N ->r ,Iout
slide41
延伸探究
  • 內阻同圈數對於輸出電流的連帶關係
  • 計算輸出功率
  • 計算效率
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