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Living organisms are classified into 3 Domains PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Living organisms are classified into 3 Domains. 1.Bacteria 2.Archaea 3.Eukarya. 4 Kingdoms in this Domain. Domain Eukarya has 4 Kingdoms. 1. Kingdom Protista 2. Kingdom Fungi 3. Kingdom Plantae 4. Kingdom Animalia. Kingdom Protista.

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Living organisms are classified into 3 Domains

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Living organisms are classified into 3 domains l.jpg

Living organisms are classified into 3 Domains

1.Bacteria

2.Archaea

3.Eukarya

4 Kingdoms in this Domain


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Domain Eukarya has 4 Kingdoms

1. Kingdom Protista

2. Kingdom Fungi

3. Kingdom Plantae

4. Kingdom Animalia


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Kingdom Protista

  • Believed to have evolved as the first eukaryotes.

  • Organisms in this group just don’t fit perfectly into any other Kingdom in the Domain Eukarya.


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  • Most protists are unicellular, but some multicellular

  • Asexual reproduction is common, but sexual reproduction also occurs.

  • Most diverse group of organisms of any kingdom.


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3 Divisions of Protist

  • Plant-like protist

  • Animal-like protist

  • Fungus-like protist


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Diversity of Protista3 Major Divisions

1st Plant-like Protist

Phytoplankton Algae (Sea Weed)

EuglenoidsRed Algae

DiatomsBrown Algae

DinoflagellatesGreen Algae

Unicellular Multicellular


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2nd Division of Protista

  • Animal Like Protist or Protozoa

    • Amoebas

    • Flagellates

    • Ciliates

    • Sporozoans


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3rd Division of Protista

  • Fungus-Like Protist

    • Slime Molds

    • Water Molds

    • Downy Mildews


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15 phyla, based on the way they obtain energy.


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PLANT-LIKE PROTISTIt is thought that theseEvolve into Plants with specialized cells and tissues


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Phylum ChlorophytaGreen AlgaeSpirogyra7000 species of Chlorophyta


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Phylum Chlorophyta Green Algae

Spirogyra is a filamentous green algae. They form end-to-end chains of cells. Often found on the surfaces of ponds.

Conjugation 

(similar to bacterial conjugation)


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Phylum Chlorophyta: Green Algae

Multicellular green algae

Chara is a stonewort, the type of green algae believed to be most closely related to plants.


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Phylum ChlorophytaGreen Algae

Volvox is a colonial green alga which has many individuals living together


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Green Algae

  • Pediastrum, a flat colony of green algae


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Phylum RhodophytaRed Algae

Commercial importance of red algae:

Agar—laboratory use, gelatin used in Petri dishes

Carrageen—thickening agent in commercial products

Porphyra--sushi


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Phylum Phaeophyta Brown Algae

Underwater forests—habitats

Kelp—food, habitats for aquatic organisms

Pectin—used to make gelatin


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Brown Algae-Kelp


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Phylum Bacilariophyta:Diatoms or Golden Algae

Silica—the shells of these organisms are used to make glass, concrete,

Diatomaceous earth -dead diatoms settle to seafloor, collected and used in abrasives

Plankton

abundant food source for marine organisms


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Diatoms


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More Diatoms


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Phylum Dinoflagellata: Spinning Algae-2 flagella for movement

Some are bio-luminescent

Some Symbiotic

Some Parasitic

Red tide—population explosion of certain types of dinoflagellates. Kills large amounts of fish. Depletes water of oxygen and releases toxins into the water.


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Red Tide-Dinoflagellates

The toxins produces by the Red Tide can make humans sick. Harvesting shellfish is banned during this time.


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More Dinoflagellates


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And more Dinoflagellates


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Phylum Euglenophyta

Freshwater

This phylum is a typical example of the difficulties in categorizing protists:

1/3 have chloroplasts, the other 2/3 do not.

No sexual reproduction. Longitudinal fission.

Propels the body through water.


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Many Euglena!


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ANIMAL-LIKE PROTISTIt is thought that these evolve into of Animals with multicellularity and specialized cells and tissue


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Phylum Zoomastigina: Move by Flagella

Trypanosoma transmitted by the bite of a tsetse fly, cause African Sleeping Sickness.

Animal-like protists

Parasite


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Trypanosoma are Flagellates which cause African Sleeping Sickness Transmitted to their human hosts by a tsetse fly

Below: Trypanosoma in a sample of human blood X 400.


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Search Results

More FlagellatesZoomastiginaSome are helpful and live in the gut of termites and digest wood


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More Flagellates Phylum Zoomastigina

Animal-like protists

Other flagellates are known to spread sexually by infecting the vagina and urethra of women, and the prostate, seminal vesicles and urethra of men.

Example:

Trichomoniasis

Giardia Lamblia

Attaches to intestinal tract and causes diarrhea

Can become infected by drinking contaminated water from stream


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Phylum Rhizopoda-AmoebasMove by Pseudopodia

Phylum Rhizopoda- amoebas, including Entamoeba hystolytica

Phylum Foraminifera- calcium carbonate shell

Phylum Actinopoda-radiolarians

Trivia

White Cliffs of Dover, Egyptian pyramids


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Amoeba

The projections are called pseudopods or “false feet.”


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Amoeba?


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Phylum Ciliophora or Ciliates Move by Cilia

Very diverse group; very complex single-celled organisms which use cilia for movement.


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Ciliate-Paramecium


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Ciliate-Stentor


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Ciliate-Vorticella


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Phylum Sporozoa-Parasite

Life cycle of Plasmodium vivax,

which

Causes malaria

Carried by the Anopheles

mosquito


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Fungus-Like ProtistThought to evolve into Fungus


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What are Fungus-Like Protists?

  • Organisms which have some fungus-like features

  • Heterotrophic

  • Decompose organic material


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Types of Fungus Like Protist:Slime molds, Water Molds, and Downy Mildews


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Slime Mold


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Slime Mold Body with reproductive Sporangia Stalks


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“Dog Vomit” Slime Mold


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More Slime Mold


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More Slime Mold


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Orange Slime Mold


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Fungus like Protist


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Downy Mildews


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Summary of Protista Kingdom

  • Most diverse group, autotrophic and heterotrophic

  • Eukaryotes, single celled and multicelled

  • Some move by: flagella, pseudopodia, cillia

  • Some are parasites

  • Reproduction both asexual and sexual

  • Some are harmless, some cause sleeping sickness , malaria and STDs


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