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Artificial life. Based on Luc Steels (1995). Subject. Study : research and synthesis towards the artificial life domain Context : limits of system expert growth of computer power cognition approach. Start point.

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artificial life

Artificial life

Based on Luc Steels (1995)

subject
Subject
  • Study :
    • research and synthesis towards the artificial life domain
  • Context :
    • limits of system expert
    • growth of computer power
    • cognition approach
start point
Start point
  • Scientific article :« The Homo Cyber Sapiens, the Robot Homonidus Intelligens, and the ‘artificial life’ approach to artificial intelligence »

Luc Steels (1995)

luc steels
Luc Steels
  • Specialized in the domain of artificial intelligence and artificial life applied to robot architectures and to the study of language

Fig 1.Luc Steels

luc steels background
Luc Steels’ background
  • Studied computer science at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology – USA)
  • Director of Sony Computer Science Laboratory in Paris
  • Professor computer science at the University of Brussels
  • Founded the VUB AI Laboratory (1983)
  • Reviewer at CNRS
once upon a time

Bionic man

?

Intelligentsystems

Artificial life

Once upon a time…

evolution

Homo Erectus

Homo Sapiens

Us

After us ?

axes of discussion
Axes of discussion
  • Bionic man or Homo cyber sapiens
  • Intelligent systems or Robot Homonidus Intelligens
  • Artificial life
artificial life1

Artificial Life

Bionic man

or Homo Cyber Sapiens

homo cyber sapiens
Homo Cyber Sapiens
  • Intelligence evolving towards greater :
    • sophistication
    • power
  • Homo Cyber Sapiens↔technological extensions of the human brain.
homo cyber sapiens1
Homo Cyber Sapiens
  • Artificial brain extensions should mimic the operation of human neurophysiology.
    • Neural modeling is implemented in chips
  • Artificial brain may be completely different from natural brain.
    • The build of bridges will establish data communication and processing.
history
History
  • Brief History of Homo Cyber Sapiens/Post Humans.
    • Mary Shelley : Frankenstein (1831)
    • K.Eric Drexler (1980-1990) : Nanotechnology
evolution of super computer
Evolution of Super Computer
  • Brain versus Super Computers
    • Ian Pearson, Chris Winter & Peter Cochrane (1995)

Fig.1Projection of supercomputer speed

use case
Use Case
  • Two Examples :
artificial life2

Artificial Life

Intelligent Systems

or Robot Homonidus Intelligens

intelligent systems
Intelligent systems
  • Cybernetic and Artificial Intelligence : already 50 years of experiment
  • Many advantages for computer science
  • A whole range of programs exhibit features of human intelligence
  • But …
limits of intelligent systems
Limits of Intelligent systems
  • Steels : 3strong limits of Intelligent systems
    • a ‘frozen intelligence’ and not an intelligent behavior
    • intelligence needs to be embodied
    • consciousness
first limit frozen intelligence
First limit : frozen intelligence
  • Expensive cost of construction
  • Ephemeral validity
  • Outdated by changes
  • Expensive and unrealistic maintenance

Something more than knowledge needed to be intelligent

second limit lack of embodiment
Second limit : lack of embodiment
  • Knowledge systems :
    • disembodied intelligence
    • no direct link to the real world
  • Intelligent behavior emerges from interactions
  • Difficulties :
    • link between the real world and the system symbols
    • adaptation to unforeseen actions
third limit consciousness
Third limit : consciousness
  • An intelligent system needs a sense of self and a conscience
    • Possible ?
    • Existence of a true autonomous agent ?
state of research in 1995
State of research in 1995
  • No technological obstacle
  • The real obstacle :the lack of a theory of intelligence
state of research in 2005 1 2

Fig 1. A robot soccer team by Nikos Vlassis (Amsterdam)

State of research in 2005 (1/2)
  • Knowledge systems : example of ‘frozen intelligence’
  • Case Based Reasoning use the last experience
  • Multi-agent systems :
    • agents
    • environment
    • interactions
state of research in 2005 2 2
State of research in 2005 (2/2)
  • McCarthy (1995-2002) :
    • consciousness does not yet exist in intelligent system

Intelligent systems

emotions

consciousness

sub consciousness

introspection

artificial life3

Artificial Life

The Artificial life approach :

Theoretical approach

historic 1 2

2005

Christopher Langton

1987

first scientific conference devoted to A-life

Connectionism

1980

parallel, distributed processing, neural networksAI ↔ cognitive science

1970

John Conway

game of life : simple system →complex self-organized structures

Alan Turing

1948

“ ‘Intelligent machinery’ , It’s the birth of the concept of intelligent machines.”

cellular automat

John Von Neumann

1940

Historic (1/2)
historic 2 2
Historic (2/2)
  • Game of life : illustration

Fig 1. Random start

Fig 2. Stable state

definitions of a life 1 2
Definitions of A-life (1/2)
  • Langton (1989) :
    • Artificial life (A-life) : study of ‘natural’ life by attempting to recreate biological phenomena from scratch within computers and other ‘artificial’ media.
  • Rennard (2002) :
    • Life : state of what is not inert.
    • Artificial life : field of research witch intend to specify the preceding definition.
definitions of a life 2 2
Definitions of A-life (2/2)
  • Doyne Farmer and d\'A.Belin (1992) : A-Life as field of alive
    • An artificial life must :
      • be initiated by man
      • be autonomous
      • be in interaction with its environment
      • induce the emergence of behaviors
    • Optional :
      • capacity to reproduce
      • capacities of adaptation
steels vision of a life
Steels’ vision of A-life
  • Dynamic system theory applied to Artificial Intelligence
  • A-life →Unified theory of cognition
  • Unified theory : explain the details of all mechanisms of all problems within some domain.
    • unified theory of cognition domain’s ↔all cognitive behavior of humans.
    • experimental psychology could support such theories. (Newell 1990)
steels research path
Steels’ research path
  • Two kinds of behavior expected :
    • differentiation : individual agent get specific task
    • recognition : make the difference between the member of the group and those which don’t.recognition →emergence of language.
axes of research 1 2
Axes of research (1/2)
  • Emergence of language (Steels & Kaplan)
    • Emergence of common sense
    • Adaptation to other agents
axes of research 2 2
Axes of research (2/2)
  • Autonomous robotic (Floreano)
    • Genetic algorithms with neural networks
    • Co-evolution
  • Animat Approach (Meyer)
    • Synthesizing animal intelligence
    • Situated and incarnate cognition
artificial life4

Artificial Life

The Artificial life approach :

Experimental approach

steels experimentation 1995 1 4
Steels’ experimentation – 1995 (1/4)
  • A complete artificial ecosystem
  • An environment with different pressures for the robots
  • Robots are required to do some work which is paid in energy
  • Cooperation and competition with each other
  • Behavior systems
steels experimentation 1995 2 4
Steels’ experimentation – 1995 (2/4)

Fig 1. The ecosystem with the charging station, a robot vehicle, and a competitor

Fig 2.A robot vehicle

steels experimentation 1995 3 4
Steels’ experimentation – 1995 (3/4)

Behavior system

  • Finding resources
  • Exploring

Environment Perception

- Visual Perception Modules

Charging station, Competitors, Other robots

- Sensors

Light, Tactile

  • Obstacle avoidance
  • - Align on charging station
  • Align on competitors

- Turn left/right, Forward, Retract, Stop

- Motors

steels experimentation 1995 4 4
Steels’ experimentation – 1995 (4/4)
  • Interesting results :
    • Behavior diversification
      • Hard working gourp
      • Lazy group
    • Steels : something could emerge from the lazy group
steel s experimentation 2001 1 3
Steel’s experimentation – 2001 (1/3)
  • One speaker (S), one hearer (H)
  • H tries to guess what S is talking about
  • H guess wrong : correction (feedback)
  • No explicit object designation : simple region pointing
steel s experimentation 2001 2 3
Steel’s experimentation – 2001 (2/3)

Fig 3. The talking heads experiment

steel s experimentation 2001 3 3
Steel’s experimentation – 2001 (3/3)
  • Interesting results :
    • Emergence of a shared word
    • Winner-take-all
    • Shared word repertoires after experiment
other kind of experimentation 1 2
Other kind of experimentation (1/2)

Floreano & al. (2004)

  • Evolution of Spiking Neural Networks in robots
  • Objective : Vision-based navigation and wall avoidance

Fig 4. A Khepera robot in a square arena

Fig 5.A Khepera robot

other kind of experimentation 2 2
Other kind of experimentation (2/2)
  • Interesting results :
    • Avoiding walls following with security distance
    • Biologically plausible connection patterns
    • Forward progression
    • Self adaptable speed : body adaptation
artificial life5

Artificial Life

Conclusion

conclusion 1 3
Conclusion (1/3)
  • 3 approaches
    • Bionic man : ethic problems
    • Intelligent systems : limits
    • Artificial life :
      • Tremendous possibilities
      • Involving many fields, biologically-inspired
      • Now a days the biological approach stay in progress.
conclusion 2 3
Conclusion (2/3)
  • Lack of intelligence theory
  • Problem of consciousness in robots
  • Is language needed for intelligence ?
  • Sufficient pressures for a new species ?
  • Does performance gain means Intelligence gain ?
conclusion 3 3
Conclusion (3/3)

“Intelligence is like life or cosmos; its such a deep

phenomenon that we will still be trying to understand it

many centuries from now.”

Luc Steels

homo cyber sapiens2
Homo Cyber Sapiens
  • The Anatomical changes are defined by :

Homo erectus

New sensory modalities.

Homo Sapiens “wise man"

  • The Extreme ecological pressures are defined by:

Homo erectus

Homo Sapiens “wise man"

homo cyber sapiens3
Homo Cyber Sapiens
  • The human species is today under just as much stress as it must have been in the past,Still Human Intelligence haven’t evolved !
  • How realistic is the development of a Homo Cyber Sapiens?
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