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第四章 IP 协议与网络互联 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第四章 IP 协议与网络互联. 本章内容. IP 互联网的工作原理 IP 协议和 IP 地址 子网和子网划分(重点理解) IP 数据报 ARP 协议、 RARP 协议和 DHCP 协议 ICMP 协议 路由原理及路由协议. 4.1.IP 互联网. 网络要求互联. 网络发展初期. 网络要求互联. 4.2.IP 互联网和 IP 协议. 4.2. 要求理解 IP 协议的特征 IP 互联网的工作机理. IP ( Internet Protocol )互联网是当前最通用的互联网络,它是使用 IP 协议构建的

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第四章 IP 协议与网络互联

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Ip

IP


Ip

  • IP

  • IPIP

  • IP

  • ARP RARPDHCP

  • ICMP


4 1 ip

4.1.IP


Ip


4 2 ip ip

4.2.IPIP

  • 4.2.

    • IP

    • IP


Ip

  • IPInternet ProtocolIP

  • IPIPI P


Ip

4.2.1.IP

  • IP


Ip

  • IP

  • IP

  • IP

  • TCP


Ip

4.2.2.IP


Ip

  • AIP

  • AIPIPX


Ip

IP


Ip

  • AIPX

  • XAIP


Ip

IP


Ip

  • XIPIP

  • X


Ip

  • XY


Ip

4.2.3.


Ip

  • IP

  • ARP Address Resolution

  • ProtocolARP IP MAC

  • RARP Reverse Address Resolution ProtocolRARPIP


Ip

  • InternetICMP Internet Control Message ProtcolICMP


4 3 ip

4.3.IP

    • IP


Ip

  • IP

    • 48bit14


Ip

  • 4.3.2.IP

    • IP


Ip

IP

  • IP32bit40255

    • IP10100110 01101111 00000100 01100100 166.111.4.100


Ip

  • IP NetID(HostID)


Ip

  • IPIPA-E


Ip

A0724

B101416

C110218

D

E


Ip

4.3.3IP

  • TCP/IP0202.93.120.0

  • TCP/IP"1"


Ip

  • A127loopback address127


Ip

  • IP

    TCP/IPIP: 10.x.x.x172.16. x.x192.168. x.xX025501IPInternet IPIPNetwork Address TranslationNAT


Ip

IP219.254.38.180192.168.0.1IP192.168.0.240004000Internet


Ip

192.168.0.24000192.168.0.1IP219.254.38.18090009000IPInternet219.254.38.18090009000IP192.168.0.24000192.168.0.24000IP


Ip

4.4.


Ip

4.4.

4.4.1.

  • IPIPA256Bsubnet


Ip

  • B88

254254


Ip

  • 01


Ip

4.4.2.

IP

IP


Ip

  • mask32bitIP10

  • IPIP10


Ip

  • ABC


Ip

  • 11111111 11111111 11100000 00000000

    =255. 255. 224. 0


Ip

4.4.3.


Ip

  • n

  • =2 -2n0

    1

    m

  • =2 -2m


Ip

  • B128.16.0.0

    6033180300

    n>=3

    m

    m 2 >=300

    m>=9B16

    n=3


Ip

00101001110010111033


Ip

  • 128.16.32.0128.16.63.255

  • 128.16.64.0128.16.95.255

  • 128.16.96.0128.16.127.255


4 5 ip

4.5.IP

  • IPIP


Ip

4.5.1.

IPInternet


Ip

  • 4IP4IPIPv4


Ip

  • 4

    • 32bit4

    • 4bit 1532bit

    • IP5


Ip

  • TTLTime To Live8

    • TTL1IPTTL01


Ip

  • 86TCP17UDP


Ip

  • 16IP


Ip

  • MFDF

  • IP32IP

  • IP32IP


Ip

4.5.2.IP

(MTUmaximum transmission unit)MTU


Ip

  • MTUR1MTU1500B2MTU1000B


Ip

  • 11400B21R2


Ip

  • IP


Ip

  • IPIP


Ip

IP

IP3DFMF


Ip

  • DFDont Fragment1

  • MF More Fragment1


Ip

  • IP


Ip

4.6.

    • ARP

    • RARP

    • DHCP


Ip

4.6.

4.6.1.ARP

IPIPIPIP


Ip

IPIP ARPAddress Resolution ProtocolARP IP MAC 48 bit


Ip

ARP

ARPARPIPIP


Ip

  • ARP


Ip

ABIPIa,IbBAARPBIP


Ip

  • 1AARPIPIb

  • 2


Ip

  • 3BIPARPA


Ip

  • 4ABBBIPAPR


Ip

  • BAIPAAARP


Ip

ARP

ARPARPARP

ARPARPIPMAC

ARP


Ip

ARPIPMACMACARP


Ip

ARP

ARPARP

  • ARP -aARP

  • ARP -dARP

    • arp d 172.16.19.11 00-e0-4c-d6-e6-02

  • ARP -S

    • arp s 172.16.19.33 00-e4-df-dd-e6-02


Ip

4.6.3.RARP

RARP RARPIP


Ip

ARPRARPARPIPRARPIP

RARPRARPIP


Ip

4.6.3.DHCP

DHCPDynarnic Host Configuration Protocol


Ip

DHCPTCPIPIPIPIPIP


Ip

IPDHCPIP


Ip

DHCPIP

  • DHCP discover

    • DHCP

  • DHCP Offer

    • DHCPIP


Ip

  • DHCP request

    • DHCP OfferIPDHCPrequestDHCPDHCPIPDHCPIP


Ip

  • DHCP ack

    • DHCPDHCPDHCPackDHCP ack


Ip

DHCP

DHCP IP DHCP

IPTCPIPIP


Ip

IPDHCPIPIP2DHCP87.5%DHCPDISCOVERIP


Ip

DHCP

DHCPWebIPMACIPIP


4 7 internet

4.7. INTERNET

    • ICMP

    • ICMP


4 7 internet1

4.7. INTERNET

4.7.1.ICMP

IPIPInternet


Ip

ICMPIP


Ip

4.7.2.ICMP


Ip

  • ICMP

  • ICMP

  • ICMP


Ip

  • ICMPICMP

  • ICMPICMP


Ip

ICMP

ICMP

IPICMP

ICMP


Ip

ICMP

ICMP

  • IPICMP


Ip


Ip

4.7.3.ICMP

Ping

PingTCP/IP


Ip

  • PingAICMPBICMPBA


Ip

4.8.


Ip

4.8.

4.8.1.

IP


Ip

IP

IPIPIPIPIP


Ip


Ip

IPDN

if N

then DD

else if D

then

else if N

then

else if

then


Ip


Ip


Ip


Ip

  • RIPOSPFIGRPEIGRP


Ip

4.9.

RIP

  • (RIPRouting Information ProtocolRIP

  • RIP(Hop)RIP


Ip

OSPF

  • OSPFOSPFRIP


4 10 ipv6

4.10.IPV6

  • IPV6IPV4InternetIPV4IPV6

    • IPv6IP32412816

    • IPV4


Ip

  • IP


Ip

  • IPv6

    IPV6IPV4IPV4IPV6IPV4IPV6


Ip

1TCP/IP________

2IPABC 128.11.3.31_________

3IP___

4. TCP/IPRARP___


Ip

5.IP192.168.0.10,255.255.255.224,IP____

6IP______________

7______IPMAC


Ip

8IPIP1_____0_____

9MTUIPMTU____ _______


Ip

10DHCP__________________

11 IPIP______


Ip

12ICMPICMP____,ICMP______ , _______ , _______

13IP______


Ip

14______________

15PingTCP/IP____________


Ip

C 192.168.138.010,12,18

1IP

2

3


Ip

1?

2TCP/IP


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