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第四章 IP 协议与网络互联 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第四章 IP 协议与网络互联. 本章内容. IP 互联网的工作原理 IP 协议和 IP 地址 子网和子网划分(重点理解) IP 数据报 ARP 协议、 RARP 协议和 DHCP 协议 ICMP 协议 路由原理及路由协议. 4.1.IP 互联网. 网络要求互联. 网络发展初期. 网络要求互联. 4.2.IP 互联网和 IP 协议. 4.2. 要求理解 IP 协议的特征 IP 互联网的工作机理. IP ( Internet Protocol )互联网是当前最通用的互联网络,它是使用 IP 协议构建的

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第四章 IP 协议与网络互联

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IP


  • IP

  • IPIP

  • IP

  • ARP RARPDHCP

  • ICMP


4.1.IP



4.2.IPIP

  • 4.2.

    • IP

    • IP


  • IPInternet ProtocolIP

  • IPIPI P


4.2.1.IP

  • IP


  • IP

  • IP

  • IP

  • TCP


4.2.2.IP


  • AIP

  • AIPIPX


IP


  • AIPX

  • XAIP


IP


  • XIPIP

  • X


  • XY


4.2.3.


  • IP

  • ARP Address Resolution

  • ProtocolARP IP MAC

  • RARP Reverse Address Resolution ProtocolRARPIP


  • InternetICMP Internet Control Message ProtcolICMP


4.3.IP

    • IP


  • IP

    • 48bit14


  • 4.3.2.IP

    • IP


IP

  • IP32bit40255

    • IP10100110 01101111 00000100 01100100 166.111.4.100


  • IP NetID(HostID)


  • IPIPA-E


A0724

B101416

C110218

D

E


4.3.3IP

  • TCP/IP0202.93.120.0

  • TCP/IP"1"


  • A127loopback address127


  • IP

    TCP/IPIP: 10.x.x.x172.16. x.x192.168. x.xX025501IPInternet IPIPNetwork Address TranslationNAT


IP219.254.38.180192.168.0.1IP192.168.0.240004000Internet


192.168.0.24000192.168.0.1IP219.254.38.18090009000IPInternet219.254.38.18090009000IP192.168.0.24000192.168.0.24000IP


4.4.


4.4.

4.4.1.

  • IPIPA256Bsubnet


  • B88

254254


  • 01


4.4.2.

IP

IP


  • mask32bitIP10

  • IPIP10


  • ABC


  • 11111111 11111111 11100000 00000000

    =255. 255. 224. 0


4.4.3.


  • n

  • =2 -2n0

    1

    m

  • =2 -2m


  • B128.16.0.0

    6033180300

    n>=3

    m

    m 2 >=300

    m>=9B16

    n=3


00101001110010111033


  • 128.16.32.0128.16.63.255

  • 128.16.64.0128.16.95.255

  • 128.16.96.0128.16.127.255


4.5.IP

  • IPIP


4.5.1.

IPInternet


  • 4IP4IPIPv4


  • 4

    • 32bit4

    • 4bit 1532bit

    • IP5


  • TTLTime To Live8

    • TTL1IPTTL01


  • 86TCP17UDP


  • 16IP


  • MFDF

  • IP32IP

  • IP32IP


4.5.2.IP

(MTUmaximum transmission unit)MTU


  • MTUR1MTU1500B2MTU1000B


  • 11400B21R2


  • IP


  • IPIP


IP

IP3DFMF


  • DFDont Fragment1

  • MF More Fragment1


  • IP


4.6.

    • ARP

    • RARP

    • DHCP


4.6.

4.6.1.ARP

IPIPIPIP


IPIP ARPAddress Resolution ProtocolARP IP MAC 48 bit


ARP

ARPARPIPIP


  • ARP


ABIPIa,IbBAARPBIP


  • 1AARPIPIb

  • 2


  • 3BIPARPA


  • 4ABBBIPAPR


  • BAIPAAARP


ARP

ARPARPARP

ARPARPIPMAC

ARP


ARPIPMACMACARP


ARP

ARPARP

  • ARP -aARP

  • ARP -dARP

    • arp d 172.16.19.11 00-e0-4c-d6-e6-02

  • ARP -S

    • arp s 172.16.19.33 00-e4-df-dd-e6-02


4.6.3.RARP

RARP RARPIP


ARPRARPARPIPRARPIP

RARPRARPIP


4.6.3.DHCP

DHCPDynarnic Host Configuration Protocol


DHCPTCPIPIPIPIPIP


IPDHCPIP


DHCPIP

  • DHCP discover

    • DHCP

  • DHCP Offer

    • DHCPIP


  • DHCP request

    • DHCP OfferIPDHCPrequestDHCPDHCPIPDHCPIP


  • DHCP ack

    • DHCPDHCPDHCPackDHCP ack


DHCP

DHCP IP DHCP

IPTCPIPIP


IPDHCPIPIP2DHCP87.5%DHCPDISCOVERIP


DHCP

DHCPWebIPMACIPIP


4.7. INTERNET

    • ICMP

    • ICMP


4.7. INTERNET

4.7.1.ICMP

IPIPInternet


ICMPIP


4.7.2.ICMP


  • ICMP

  • ICMP

  • ICMP


  • ICMPICMP

  • ICMPICMP


ICMP

ICMP

IPICMP

ICMP


ICMP

ICMP

  • IPICMP



4.7.3.ICMP

Ping

PingTCP/IP


  • PingAICMPBICMPBA


4.8.


4.8.

4.8.1.

IP


IP

IPIPIPIPIP



IPDN

if N

then DD

else if D

then

else if N

then

else if

then





  • RIPOSPFIGRPEIGRP


4.9.

RIP

  • (RIPRouting Information ProtocolRIP

  • RIP(Hop)RIP


OSPF

  • OSPFOSPFRIP


4.10.IPV6

  • IPV6IPV4InternetIPV4IPV6

    • IPv6IP32412816

    • IPV4


  • IP


  • IPv6

    IPV6IPV4IPV4IPV6IPV4IPV6


1TCP/IP________

2IPABC 128.11.3.31_________

3IP___

4. TCP/IPRARP___


5.IP192.168.0.10,255.255.255.224,IP____

6IP______________

7______IPMAC


8IPIP1_____0_____

9MTUIPMTU____ _______


10DHCP__________________

11 IPIP______


12ICMPICMP____,ICMP______ , _______ , _______

13IP______


14______________

15PingTCP/IP____________


C 192.168.138.010,12,18

1IP

2

3


1?

2TCP/IP


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