Infectious Diseases 1. Organisms that cause diseases are called pathogens 2. Infectious disease a. a disease that is caused by the presence of a living thing within the body b. pathogens have gotten inside your body and caused harm. 3. Kinds of pathogens
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Infectious Diseases 1. Organisms that cause diseases are called pathogens2. Infectious disease a. a disease that is caused by the presence of a living thing within the body b. pathogens have gotten inside your body and causedharm.
3. Kinds of pathogens
a. Bacteria- food poisoning, strep throat and tetanus.
Some pathogens damage cells by producing a poison, also called a toxin.
b. Virus – cold, flu
c. Fungi – athletes foot, ringworm
d. Protists – malaria, African sleeping sickness, amebic dysentery (diahrea, nausea)
4. How pathogens spread
a. Contact with infected people
direct – kissing or shaking hands
indirect contact – someone sneezing or shaking hands
b. Soil – botulism ( from not washing vegetables well)
c. Food – cholera, dysentery
d. Water – cholera, dysentery (public water system tested to make sure levels are safe)
Well water or other water sources are not tested and you have a greater risk of
e. Contaminated objects – cold, flu, tetanus (germs can live on chairs, desks, pencils, door knobs.
f. Infected animals – rabies (sick animals) , lyme disease (tick bites) , rocky mountain spotted fever (ticks), malaria and West Nile disease(spread by mosquitoes)
5. How to Prevent Pathogen spread a. Active Immunity (our own immune system)Some immune systems are stronger than others. Immunity – a body’s ability to destroy pathogens before they cause disease with the antigens ourbodies produceVaccination – process by which harmless antigens are deliberately introduced into a persons body to produce active immunity. b. Passive Immunity – antibiotics – chemicals that kill bacteria or slows the bacteria's growth of bacteria's that cause us to get sick
Noninfectious Diseases 1. Diseases that are not caused by pathogens.a. cannot be transferred from person to personb. not contagious 2. Allergies- when the body system is sensitive to a foreign substance in the body. Examples: mold, dust, some food.a. Bodies produce histamines 3. Diabetesa. Pancreas fails to produce enough insulin or the body fails to use it properly.b. Results in too much glucosec. Type 1- must take insulin shotsd. Type 2- controlled by diet and exercise4. Cancer- cells multiply uncontrollably over and over killing the healthy cellsa. Tumors may develop b. Causes – genetic or environment (carcinogen)Examples: nicotine, UV light, vinyl chloride, arsenic asbestosc. Treatment- drugs, radiation, surgeryd. Prevention- avoid carcinogens, eat healthy and regular exercise