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1.2 Understanding the Research Process. pages 17 – 24. Aims, procedure, findings. Aim : purpose of the study Target population : the group the researcher is investigating Procedure: step by step process Findings: how the researcher interpreted the data

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Aims procedure findings
Aims, procedure, findings

  • Aim: purpose of the study

  • Target population: the group the researcher is investigating

  • Procedure: step by step process

  • Findings: how the researcher interpreted the data

    • How do you know if the findings are credible?

      • Has then study been repeated& confirmed by other researchers?

      • Is the study limited to one targeted/cultural group?


The pygmalion effect
The Pygmalion Effect

  • State the Aim, Procedure, and Findings of the study?

  • Do you think the teachers were informed about the aim of the study? Comment on this.


Participants who should be in your study
Participants – who should be in your study?

  • Participants- people who take part in the study

    • Sample: the nature of the group.

    • Representative sample: a sample that represents a given population

      • e.g. women who have given birth to twins

      • Teenagers who take drugs

  • The size of the sample influences outcome


Types of sampling
Types of sampling

  • Opportunity sampling

    • Convenience sampling – whoever happens to be there.

    • How representative of the population is this?

    • Is there cultural/gender imbalance?

    • What is the nature of the research?

  • Self-selected sampling

    • Volunteers – highly motivated, easy to obtain, BUT do they represent the general population?


Types of sampling cont
Types of sampling cont.,

  • Snowball-sampling

    • participants recruit friends/associates

    • Often used in social psychology

  • Participant Variability: the extent to which the participants share common traits.

  • Random sampling: one in which every member of the target population has an equal chance of being selected.

    • e.g. draw 25 – 30 names from a hat , use random numbers assigned by a computer.

    • Aim is to omit selection bias

    • Stratified sampling is a modification of random sampling which allows for subcategories , so all populations are represented.


Be a researcher
Be a Researcher

  • You want to make a study of people’s motivation to engage in exercise. You decide to go to the local fitness center and conduct some interviews.

  • What type of sampling would this represent?

  • What population of people would be over represented/under represented?

  • How could you get a more representative sample?


Exercise 2 propose suitable sampling techniques for the following explain your choices
Exercise 2: Propose suitable sampling techniques for the following. Explain your choices

  • You want to investigate student opinions about moving the school to a new site.

  • You want to investigate the relationship between caffeine use and Alzheimer’s disease in older people.

  • You want to investigate the possible effects of drug use on student performance at school

  • You want to know who the most popular sports person in your country is.


Ethics in research
Ethics in research following. Explain your choices

  • Informed Consent

  • Deception

  • Debriefing

  • Withdrawal from the study

  • Confidentiality

  • Protection form physical or mental harm


Evaluating findings does the study have any practical application
Evaluating Findings: Does the Study have any practical Application?

  • Application: How is the study used? Can it be applied?

    • e.g. therapy, education, crime, workplace or even sports

      • Improving memory

      • Effects of lighting on mood and work production

      • Pygmalion effect


Validity and reliability
Validity and Reliability Application?

  • Does the research do what it claims?

  • Ecological Validity asks, what happens in real life?

    • If the results only occur in a lab setting how accurate are they?

  • Cross Culture Validity – is the research relevant to other cultures? Or is it ethnocentric?

    • Native Americans vs. European Americans

  • Reliability – the results can be replicated.


What to look for in a study
What to Look For In A Study Application?

  • What was the aim of the research?

  • Who made up the sample of participants?

  • Was the research valid and ethical?

  • Can the findings be applied to real life situations?


Critical thinking skills in establishing a study
Critical Thinking Skills in establishing a study Application?

  • Is the study based on a representative group of people?

  • Was the study conducted in a lab or a natural setting?

  • Were the participants asked to do things that are far from real life?

  • Are the finding of the study supported/questioned by other studies?

  • Do the findings have practical relevance?

  • Ethical considerations?


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