1 2 understanding the research process
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1.2 Understanding the Research Process. pages 17 – 24. Aims, procedure, findings. Aim : purpose of the study Target population : the group the researcher is investigating Procedure: step by step process Findings: how the researcher interpreted the data

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aims procedure findings
Aims, procedure, findings
  • Aim: purpose of the study
  • Target population: the group the researcher is investigating
  • Procedure: step by step process
  • Findings: how the researcher interpreted the data
    • How do you know if the findings are credible?
      • Has then study been repeated& confirmed by other researchers?
      • Is the study limited to one targeted/cultural group?
the pygmalion effect
The Pygmalion Effect
  • State the Aim, Procedure, and Findings of the study?
  • Do you think the teachers were informed about the aim of the study? Comment on this.
participants who should be in your study
Participants – who should be in your study?
  • Participants- people who take part in the study
    • Sample: the nature of the group.
    • Representative sample: a sample that represents a given population
      • e.g. women who have given birth to twins
      • Teenagers who take drugs
  • The size of the sample influences outcome
types of sampling
Types of sampling
  • Opportunity sampling
    • Convenience sampling – whoever happens to be there.
    • How representative of the population is this?
    • Is there cultural/gender imbalance?
    • What is the nature of the research?
  • Self-selected sampling
    • Volunteers – highly motivated, easy to obtain, BUT do they represent the general population?
types of sampling cont
Types of sampling cont.,
  • Snowball-sampling
    • participants recruit friends/associates
    • Often used in social psychology
  • Participant Variability: the extent to which the participants share common traits.
  • Random sampling: one in which every member of the target population has an equal chance of being selected.
    • e.g. draw 25 – 30 names from a hat , use random numbers assigned by a computer.
    • Aim is to omit selection bias
    • Stratified sampling is a modification of random sampling which allows for subcategories , so all populations are represented.
be a researcher
Be a Researcher
  • You want to make a study of people’s motivation to engage in exercise. You decide to go to the local fitness center and conduct some interviews.
  • What type of sampling would this represent?
  • What population of people would be over represented/under represented?
  • How could you get a more representative sample?
exercise 2 propose suitable sampling techniques for the following explain your choices
Exercise 2: Propose suitable sampling techniques for the following. Explain your choices
  • You want to investigate student opinions about moving the school to a new site.
  • You want to investigate the relationship between caffeine use and Alzheimer’s disease in older people.
  • You want to investigate the possible effects of drug use on student performance at school
  • You want to know who the most popular sports person in your country is.
ethics in research
Ethics in research
  • Informed Consent
  • Deception
  • Debriefing
  • Withdrawal from the study
  • Confidentiality
  • Protection form physical or mental harm
evaluating findings does the study have any practical application
Evaluating Findings: Does the Study have any practical Application?
  • Application: How is the study used? Can it be applied?
    • e.g. therapy, education, crime, workplace or even sports
      • Improving memory
      • Effects of lighting on mood and work production
      • Pygmalion effect
validity and reliability
Validity and Reliability
  • Does the research do what it claims?
  • Ecological Validity asks, what happens in real life?
    • If the results only occur in a lab setting how accurate are they?
  • Cross Culture Validity – is the research relevant to other cultures? Or is it ethnocentric?
    • Native Americans vs. European Americans
  • Reliability – the results can be replicated.
what to look for in a study
What to Look For In A Study
  • What was the aim of the research?
  • Who made up the sample of participants?
  • Was the research valid and ethical?
  • Can the findings be applied to real life situations?
critical thinking skills in establishing a study
Critical Thinking Skills in establishing a study
  • Is the study based on a representative group of people?
  • Was the study conducted in a lab or a natural setting?
  • Were the participants asked to do things that are far from real life?
  • Are the finding of the study supported/questioned by other studies?
  • Do the findings have practical relevance?
  • Ethical considerations?
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