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ISLAM. THE FIRST TRANS-REGIONAL CIVILIZATION. CURRENT MUSLIM WORLD. PRE-ISLAMIC ARABIA. The Arabian peninsula Largely deserts with mountains, oases Fertile areas in the southern mountains around Yemen Nomadic Bedouin Lived in the desert-covered peninsula for millennia

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islam

ISLAM

THE FIRST TRANS-REGIONAL CIVILIZATION

pre islamic arabia
PRE-ISLAMIC ARABIA
  • The Arabian peninsula
    • Largely deserts with mountains, oases
    • Fertile areas in the southern mountains around Yemen
    • Nomadic Bedouin
      • Lived in the desert-covered peninsula for millennia
      • Kept herds of sheep, goats, and camels
      • Organized in family and clan groups
      • Importance of kinship and loyalty to the clan
      • Many tribes were matrilineal with some rights for women
    • Urbanized Arabs in oases, cities across area
  • Post-classical Arabia
    • Romans (Byzantines), Persians had client kingdoms
      • Roman Nabateans (Arabia Petropolis, Petra)
      • Herod was an Arabic Jew who ruled a client kingdom
      • Queen Zenobia of Palmyra
    • Active in long-distance over land trade
      • Trade from Damascus to Mecca/Medina to Yemen
      • Trade across desert to Persian Gulf and along coast
      • Part of Red Sea trade system; links between Yemen, Abyssinia
      • Trade includes gold, frankincense and myrrh
    • Religions
      • Tribes were polytheist worshipping sun, moon, spirits
      • Groups of Jews, Monophysite Christians in cities
      • Zoroastrian merchants throughout region
muhammad s early life
MUHAMMAD’S EARLY LIFE
  • Muhammad ibn Abdullah
    • Born in a Mecca merchant family, 570 C.E.
    • Difficult early life: orphaned, lived with uncle
    • Married a wealthy widow, Khadija, in 595
    • Became a merchant at age 30, exposed to various faiths
  • Muhammad\'s spiritual transformation
    • At age 40, on retreat he experienced visions
    • There was only one true god, Allah ("the god")
    • Allah would soon bring judgment on the world
    • The archangel Gabriel delivered these revelations to Muhammad
    • Did not intend to found a new religion, but his message became appealing
  • Conflict at Mecca
    • His teachings offended others, especially ruling elite of Mecca
    • Attacks on greed offended wealthy merchants
    • Attacks on idolatry threatened shrines, especially the Kaa\'ba
  • The hijra
    • Under persecution, Muhammad, followers fled to Medina, 622 C.E.
    • The move, known as hijra, was starting point of Islamic calendar
  • The first ummaorganized in Medina
    • Organized a cohesive community of the faithful
    • Led commercial adventure, lanuched raids against Mecca caravans
    • Helped the poor and needy
  • Returned in triumph to Mecca after winning wars
the messanger
THE MESSANGER
  • The "seal of the prophets"
    • Who was Muhammad
      • Referred to himself as "seal of the prophets"
      • Final prophet of Allah but not the Son of God
    • Held Hebrew scriptures and New Testament in high esteem
      • Referred to followers as “Peoples of the Book”
      • If they did not threaten umma, were to be protected
      • Paid a head tax for right to worship, did not tithe
      • Could not kill, hurt people of the book unless they attacked Muslims
    • Determined to spread Allah\'s wish to all humankind
  • The Quran
    • Followers compiled Muhammad\'s actual revelations after his death
    • Rewritten by the 2nd Caliph into a work of magnificent poetry
    • Muslims are commanded to read the Quran, therefore literacy high
    • Quran ("recitation"), became the holy book of Islam
    • Suras are chapters; organized from longest to shortest
    • 147 Suras
  • The Hadith
    • Sayings attributed to Muhammad; not included in Quran
    • Three levels from most accurate/likely to highly suspect
conquest of arabia
CONQUEST OF ARABIA
  • Muhammad\'s return to Mecca
    • Conquered Mecca, 630
    • Created a theocratic government dedicated to Allah
    • Suppressed rebellious tribes in area including Jewish tribes
    • Destroyed pagan shrines and built mosques
  • The Kaa\'ba
    • The Kaa\'ba shrine was not destroyed
    • In 632, Muhammad led the first Islamic pilgrimage to the Kaa\'ba
  • The Five Pillars of Islam
    • Obligations taught by Muhammad, known as the Five Pillars
    • The Five Pillars bound the umma into a cohesive community of faith
    • Profession of faith, prayer, tithing, pilgrimage, fasting at Ramadan
  • Islamic law: the sharia
    • Emerged during the centuries after Muhammad
    • Detailed guidance on proper behavior in almost every aspect of life
    • Drew laws, precepts from the Quran
    • Drew traditions from Arabic culture, Hadith
    • Through the sharia, Islam became a religion and a way of life
expansion of islam
EXPANSION OF ISLAM
  • The caliph
    • Upon Muhammad\'s death, Abu Bakr served as caliph ("deputy")
    • Became head of state, chief judge, religious leader, military commander
    • First four called Orthodox caliphs because they were original followers
  • The expansion of Islam
    • 633-637, seized Byzantine Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia
    • 640\'s, conquered Egypt and north Africa
    • 651, toppled Sassanid dynasty
    • 711-718, conquered Hindu region of Sind; Iberia, NW Africa
    • Success due to weakness of enemies, vigor of Islam
  • Dar al Islam or Dar el Harb?
    • The Islamic world where the Sharia is in force, Islam dominates
    • Dar el Harb is the land of the unbelievers, or non-Muslims
  • The Shia and Sunnis
    • The Sunnis ("traditionalists") accepted legitimacy of early caliphs
      • Were Arab as opposed to Islamic
      • Did not feel caliphs had to be related to Muhammad
    • The Shia sect supported Ali (last caliph and son in law of Muhammad)
      • A refuge for non-Arab converts, poor; followers in Irag, Iran
      • Felt caliphs should be directly related to Muhammad
    • Two sects struggled over succession; produced a civil war, murder
umayyad dynasty
UMAYYAD DYNASTY
  • The Umayyad dynasty (661-750 C.E.)
    • Umayyads had been the clan which ruled Mecca before Muhammad
    • Umayyad elected caliph, won civil war, established dynasty
    • Ali murdered by caliph’s followers
    • Established capital city at Damascus in Syria
    • Ruled for the interests of Arabian military aristocracy
  • Policy toward conquered peoples
    • Dhimmis were the conquered Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians
    • Levied jizya (head tax) on those who did not convert to Islam
    • Even the converts did not enjoy wealth, position of authority
  • Umayyad decline
    • Caliphs became alienated from Arabs by early 8th century
    • By the mid-century, faced strong resistance of the Shia faction
    • The discontent of conquered peoples also increased
    • Umayyad family slaughtered; only one son escaped to Spain
    • Formed breakaway Umayyad Dynasty in Spain
abbasid dynasty
ABBASID DYNASTY
  • Abu al-Abbas
    • A descendant of Muhammad\'s uncle; allied with Shias and non-Arab Muslims
    • Seized control of Persia and Mesopotamia during 740\'s
    • Shattered Umayyad forces at a battle in 750; annihilated the Umayyad clan
  • The Abbasid dynasty (750-1258 C.E.)
    • Showed no special favor to Arab military aristocracy
    • Empire still growing, but not initiated by the central government
  • Abbasid administration
    • Relied heavily on Persians, Persian techniques of statecraft
    • Central authority ruled from the court at Baghdad, newly built city
    • Governors ruled provinces; Ulama, qadis (judges) ruled local areas
  • Harun al-Rashid (786-809 C.E.)
    • Represented the high point of the dynasty
    • Baghdad became metropolis, center for commerce, industry, and culture
  • Abbasid decline
    • Struggle for succession between Harun\'s sons led to civil war
    • Governors built their own power bases, regional dynasties
    • Local military commanders took title of Sultan
    • Popular uprisings and peasant rebellions weakened the dynasty
    • A Persian noble seized control of Baghdad in 945
    • Later, the Seljuk Turks controlled the imperial family
an urban civilization
AN URBAN CIVILIZATION
  • Arab Urban History
    • Pre-Islamic Arabs were both urban, bedouin
      • Mecca, Medina, Yemeni cities, cities of Palmyra, Arab Petropolis
      • Center of the city was a market place often shared with religious center
      • Cities designed with human-environment interaction in mind
      • Nomads came to city to trade, city often settled by whole tribes
      • Arabs had settled in cities in Syria, Iraq, Jordan
    • Arabic cities linked to wider world through merchants, trade
    • Arab cities exposed to Jews, Persians, Monophysites, Sabeans
  • Arabic Empire and Urban Growth
    • Islam as a culture requires mosque, merchant: very urban in outlook
      • Capital moved from Mecca to Damascus by Umayyads
      • Arabs founded military cities on edges of desert to rule empire
    • As empire grew, needed something more permanent
      • Abbasids moved capital from Damascus, Kufa to Baghdad
      • Other designed for purpose cities include Fez, Cairo, Tunis
    • Increasing agricultural production contributed to growth of cities
      • Cities: centers for administration, industry, trade, education, faith
      • Many different ethnic minorities settled in Muslim cities (quarters)
      • Mosque at center surrounded by suk, square, in decreasing social order
changed economics
CHANGED ECONOMICS
  • Merchants, pilgrims, travelers exchanged foods across empire
  • Exchange and spread of food and industrial crops
    • Indian plants traveled to other lands of the empire
    • Staple crops: sugarcane, rice, new varieties of sorghum and wheat
    • Vegetables: spinach, artichokes, eggplants
    • Fruits: oranges, lemons, limes, bananas, coconuts, watermelons, mangoes
    • Industrial crops: cotton, indigo, henna
  • Effects of new crops
    • Increased varieties and quantities of food
    • Industrial crops: basis for a thriving textile industry
    • Foodstuffs increased health, populations of cities
  • Agricultural experimentation
    • Numerous agricultural manuals
    • Agricultural methods and techniques improved
    • Improved irrigation
a vast trade zone
A VAST TRADE ZONE
  • Camels and caravans
    • Overland desert trade traveled mostly by camel caravan
    • Caravanserais (motel, corrals) in Islamic cities
    • Trading goods usually luxury in nature
  • Maritime trade based on technological borrowing
    • Arab, Persian mariners borrowed
      • Compass from the Chinese
      • Lateen sail from southeast Asian, Indian mariners
      • Astrolabe from the Hellenistic mariners
    • Organization and dominance of trade
      • In North Africa across Sahara, down Nile, SW Asia, to India
      • Eastern Mediterranean, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Arabia Gulf down coasts
      • Many cities grew rich from trade
      • Entrepreneurs often pooled their resources in group investments
      • Different kinds of joint endeavors
  • Banks
    • Operated on large scale and provided extensive services
    • Letters of credit, or sakk, functioned as bank checks
  • Exchange of Ideas included Islam, technology, culture
women s changing status
WOMEN’S CHANGING STATUS
  • Pre-Islamic Arab Women
    • Arabs as nomads allowed women many rights
    • Women often poets, tribe leaders
    • Some evidence of matrilineal tribes
  • The Quran and women
    • Quran enhanced rights, security of women
    • Forced husbands to honor contracts, love women
    • Allowed women to own property, protected from exploitation
  • What produced the change
    • Foreign Contacts changed the perspective
      • Adopted veiling from Mesopotamia, Persia
      • Isolation from India through purdah, harem
    • Muslim rights for women
      • Often weaken through Hadith, traditions
      • Often reduced, ignored
      • Patriarch beliefs reinforced by conquest
      • Yet Quran, sharia also reinforced male domination
      • Role of Hadith, Arab traditions reinforced male domination
  • Women in West Africa, Central Asia
    • Much freer than their Arab, Persian, Indian counterparts
    • Carryover of traditions from previous cultural tolerance of women
islam other contacts
ISLAM & OTHER CONTACTS
  • Persian influence on Islam
    • After Arabs most prominent of Muslims, resisted Arabization
      • Cultural traditions often borrowed heavily by Islam
      • Became early followers of Shia
    • Government and regionalism
      • Many advisors (vizer is Persian word) to Caliphs were Persian
      • Cultured, diplomatic language of Abbassid court became Persian
    • Literary achievements
      • Omar Khayyam was greatest of Medieval Muslim poets
      • The Arabian Nights largely in a Persian style
  • Turkish influences
    • Central Asian nomads converted to Islam, developed literary culture
    • Invaded SW Asia and made caliphate dependent on Turkish nomads
    • Formed military might, leadership of late Abbassid state
  • Indian Influences
    • Purdah and harem borrowed from Hindus
    • "Hindi numerals," which Europeans called "Arabic numerals"
  • Greek Influences
    • Muslims philosophers especially liked Plato and Aristotle; Greek math
    • Effort of harmonizing two traditions met resistance from Sufis
islamic cultural tradition
ISLAMIC CULTURAL TRADITION
  • Quran, sharia were main sources to formulate moral guidelines
  • Constant struggle between what is Arabic and what is Islamic
    • Use of Arabic script as only language of Islam strengthened trend
    • Persians, Turks, Indians, and Africans struggled for acceptance
  • Promotion of Islamic values
    • Ulama, qadis, and missionaries were main agents
    • Education also promoted Islamic values
  • Sufis
    • Islamic mystics, effective missionaries
    • Encouraged devotion by singing, dancing
    • Led ascetic, holy lives, won respect
    • Encouraged followers to revere Allah in own ways
    • Tolerated those who associated Allah with other beliefs
  • The hajj
    • The Kaa\'ba became the symbol of Islamic cultural unity
    • Pilgrims helped to spread Islamic beliefs and values
turks islam
TURKS & ISLAM
  • Early Turkic Tribes
    • Originated in Central Asia, Mongolia
    • The Götürk Empire arose c. 6th century
      • Confederacy of tribes united under khans
      • Remained nomadic but adopted Syriac script
      • Some conversion to Christianity, Buddhism
      • Broke up over rivalries between clans
    • Turkish tribes Turks migrated
      • Towards Iran, Russian Steppes
      • Became the Khazars and Seljuks
  • The Seljuk Turks
    • The Sultanate
      • Converted to Sunni Islam while in Central Asia
      • 1037: group migrated into Iran, set up a sultanate
      • 1055: captured Baghdad and later Jerusalem
      • 1071: defeated Byzantines at Manzikert and occupied Anatolia
    • Sultans and Mameluks
      • Left Abbasid caliphs as figurehead
      • Sultans were military commanders and governors of provinces
      • Mameluks were slave soldiers – Turkish slaves formed military aristocracy
      • Large numbers settled Anatolia producing a flowering of Turkish culture
  • Sultanates of Delhi and Egypt were Mameluk, Turkish
the crusades
THE CRUSADES
  • Religiously sanctioned wars
    • Muslim Jihad has its Christian counterpart
      • Early Islam sanctioned Holy Wars, initially Christianity did not
      • Muslim conquest of largely Christian lands changed tradition
    • Christian Reconquista in Iberia
      • Christian knights sanctioned by Church fought Muslims
      • Warfare in Iberia, Sicily, Sardinia, Crete preceded 11th century
  • “The Crusades”
    • A Changed Situation in Southwest Asia
      • Turkish conquests changed situation
        • They conquered Holy Land
        • Arabs had permitted pilgrimage, Turks curtailed it
      • The Byzantine Empire
        • Byzantines in Schism with West asked Pope for help
        • Pope saw chance to reunite churches and end schism
      • Church calls for crusades, offers indulgences
    • More than nine crusaders
      • Initial one conquered Holy Land and set up crusader states
      • Next crusades all called to defend conquests
    • Opened up West to Islamic contacts but had not impact on Islam
other islamic regions
OTHER ISLAMIC REGIONS
  • Al-Andalus
    • Iberian Peninsular largely conquered by Muslim Berbers 711 – 714
    • Claimed independence from the Abbasid dynasty
    • Participated in commercial life of the larger Islamic world
    • Products of al-Andalus enjoyed a reputation for excellence
    • Cordoba was a center of learning, commerce, architecture
    • After death of Abd al Rahman III broke up into petty kingdoms
    • A unique blended culture
      • Arab, Latin, German, Islamic, Christian, Jewish
      • Very tolerant and integrated society
    • Warred for 700 years with Christian kingdoms in north
  • North Africa
    • Strong followers of Shia, broke with Abbassids
    • Berbers followed many puritanical Shia like movements
    • Eventually Fatimids conquered Egypt, formed rival caliphate
  • Central Asia
    • Largely Turkish, Persian and Islamic but not Arabic
    • Tended to be distant from Baghdad and more tolerant
    • Integrated into trans-Eurasian trade network
egypt during period
EGYPT DURING PERIOD
  • Arab Conquest of Egypt
    • Conquered c. 639 CE when Coptic Christians opened borders to Muslims
    • Arabs ruled through governors but did not seek conversions
    • Umayyad and Abbasid rule weakened and local sultans took great power
    • Over-taxation led to revolts and settlement of Arab tribes as soldiers
  • Fatimid Egypt
    • Arab Shia Muslim dynasty of Egypt 909 – 1171
    • Rulers belonged to Ismaili branch of Shia Islam
    • Proclaimed themselves Caliphs
    • Established Cairo
  • Ayyubid Egypt
    • A Sunni Dynasty of Kurdish origins 1171 – 1341
    • Saladin dissolves Fatimid rule, proclaims himself sultan
    • Spends early part conquering Holy Land, Hejaz, North Africa
    • Warred with Crusaders but established an amicable relationship
  • Lifestyles
    • A period of toleration between Muslims, Jews, Coptic Christians
    • A time of great prosperity where Egypt was a center of interactions
    • Conversion was slow but gradual: Arabic replaced Coptic as main language
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