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ISLAM. THE FIRST TRANS-REGIONAL CIVILIZATION. CURRENT MUSLIM WORLD. PRE-ISLAMIC ARABIA. The Arabian peninsula Largely deserts with mountains, oases Fertile areas in the southern mountains around Yemen Nomadic Bedouin Lived in the desert-covered peninsula for millennia

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Islam

ISLAM

THE FIRST TRANS-REGIONAL CIVILIZATION


Current muslim world

CURRENT MUSLIM WORLD


Pre islamic arabia

PRE-ISLAMIC ARABIA

  • The Arabian peninsula

    • Largely deserts with mountains, oases

    • Fertile areas in the southern mountains around Yemen

    • Nomadic Bedouin

      • Lived in the desert-covered peninsula for millennia

      • Kept herds of sheep, goats, and camels

      • Organized in family and clan groups

      • Importance of kinship and loyalty to the clan

      • Many tribes were matrilineal with some rights for women

    • Urbanized Arabs in oases, cities across area

  • Post-classical Arabia

    • Romans (Byzantines), Persians had client kingdoms

      • Roman Nabateans (Arabia Petropolis, Petra)

      • Herod was an Arabic Jew who ruled a client kingdom

      • Queen Zenobia of Palmyra

    • Active in long-distance over land trade

      • Trade from Damascus to Mecca/Medina to Yemen

      • Trade across desert to Persian Gulf and along coast

      • Part of Red Sea trade system; links between Yemen, Abyssinia

      • Trade includes gold, frankincense and myrrh

    • Religions

      • Tribes were polytheist worshipping sun, moon, spirits

      • Groups of Jews, Monophysite Christians in cities

      • Zoroastrian merchants throughout region


Trade routes c 500 ce

TRADE ROUTES c. 500 CE


Physical map of arabia

PHYSICAL MAP OF ARABIA


Muhammad s early life

MUHAMMAD’S EARLY LIFE

  • Muhammad ibn Abdullah

    • Born in a Mecca merchant family, 570 C.E.

    • Difficult early life: orphaned, lived with uncle

    • Married a wealthy widow, Khadija, in 595

    • Became a merchant at age 30, exposed to various faiths

  • Muhammad's spiritual transformation

    • At age 40, on retreat he experienced visions

    • There was only one true god, Allah ("the god")

    • Allah would soon bring judgment on the world

    • The archangel Gabriel delivered these revelations to Muhammad

    • Did not intend to found a new religion, but his message became appealing

  • Conflict at Mecca

    • His teachings offended others, especially ruling elite of Mecca

    • Attacks on greed offended wealthy merchants

    • Attacks on idolatry threatened shrines, especially the Kaa'ba

  • The hijra

    • Under persecution, Muhammad, followers fled to Medina, 622 C.E.

    • The move, known as hijra, was starting point of Islamic calendar

  • The first ummaorganized in Medina

    • Organized a cohesive community of the faithful

    • Led commercial adventure, lanuched raids against Mecca caravans

    • Helped the poor and needy

  • Returned in triumph to Mecca after winning wars


The messanger

THE MESSANGER

  • The "seal of the prophets"

    • Who was Muhammad

      • Referred to himself as "seal of the prophets"

      • Final prophet of Allah but not the Son of God

    • Held Hebrew scriptures and New Testament in high esteem

      • Referred to followers as “Peoples of the Book”

      • If they did not threaten umma, were to be protected

      • Paid a head tax for right to worship, did not tithe

      • Could not kill, hurt people of the book unless they attacked Muslims

    • Determined to spread Allah's wish to all humankind

  • The Quran

    • Followers compiled Muhammad's actual revelations after his death

    • Rewritten by the 2nd Caliph into a work of magnificent poetry

    • Muslims are commanded to read the Quran, therefore literacy high

    • Quran ("recitation"), became the holy book of Islam

    • Suras are chapters; organized from longest to shortest

    • 147 Suras

  • The Hadith

    • Sayings attributed to Muhammad; not included in Quran

    • Three levels from most accurate/likely to highly suspect


Conquest of arabia

CONQUEST OF ARABIA

  • Muhammad's return to Mecca

    • Conquered Mecca, 630

    • Created a theocratic government dedicated to Allah

    • Suppressed rebellious tribes in area including Jewish tribes

    • Destroyed pagan shrines and built mosques

  • The Kaa'ba

    • The Kaa'ba shrine was not destroyed

    • In 632, Muhammad led the first Islamic pilgrimage to the Kaa'ba

  • The Five Pillars of Islam

    • Obligations taught by Muhammad, known as the Five Pillars

    • The Five Pillars bound the umma into a cohesive community of faith

    • Profession of faith, prayer, tithing, pilgrimage, fasting at Ramadan

  • Islamic law: the sharia

    • Emerged during the centuries after Muhammad

    • Detailed guidance on proper behavior in almost every aspect of life

    • Drew laws, precepts from the Quran

    • Drew traditions from Arabic culture, Hadith

    • Through the sharia, Islam became a religion and a way of life


6 th century arabia

6TH CENTURY ARABIA


Symbols of islam

SYMBOLS OF ISLAM


Expansion of islam

EXPANSION OF ISLAM

  • The caliph

    • Upon Muhammad's death, Abu Bakr served as caliph ("deputy")

    • Became head of state, chief judge, religious leader, military commander

    • First four called Orthodox caliphs because they were original followers

  • The expansion of Islam

    • 633-637, seized Byzantine Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia

    • 640's, conquered Egypt and north Africa

    • 651, toppled Sassanid dynasty

    • 711-718, conquered Hindu region of Sind; Iberia, NW Africa

    • Success due to weakness of enemies, vigor of Islam

  • Dar al Islam or Dar el Harb?

    • The Islamic world where the Sharia is in force, Islam dominates

    • Dar el Harb is the land of the unbelievers, or non-Muslims

  • The Shia and Sunnis

    • The Sunnis ("traditionalists") accepted legitimacy of early caliphs

      • Were Arab as opposed to Islamic

      • Did not feel caliphs had to be related to Muhammad

    • The Shia sect supported Ali (last caliph and son in law of Muhammad)

      • A refuge for non-Arab converts, poor; followers in Irag, Iran

      • Felt caliphs should be directly related to Muhammad

    • Two sects struggled over succession; produced a civil war, murder


Spread of islam

SPREAD OF ISLAM


Umayyad dynasty

UMAYYAD DYNASTY

  • The Umayyad dynasty (661-750 C.E.)

    • Umayyads had been the clan which ruled Mecca before Muhammad

    • Umayyad elected caliph, won civil war, established dynasty

    • Ali murdered by caliph’s followers

    • Established capital city at Damascus in Syria

    • Ruled for the interests of Arabian military aristocracy

  • Policy toward conquered peoples

    • Dhimmis were the conquered Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians

    • Levied jizya (head tax) on those who did not convert to Islam

    • Even the converts did not enjoy wealth, position of authority

  • Umayyad decline

    • Caliphs became alienated from Arabs by early 8th century

    • By the mid-century, faced strong resistance of the Shia faction

    • The discontent of conquered peoples also increased

    • Umayyad family slaughtered; only one son escaped to Spain

    • Formed breakaway Umayyad Dynasty in Spain


Abbasid dynasty

ABBASID DYNASTY

  • Abu al-Abbas

    • A descendant of Muhammad's uncle; allied with Shias and non-Arab Muslims

    • Seized control of Persia and Mesopotamia during 740's

    • Shattered Umayyad forces at a battle in 750; annihilated the Umayyad clan

  • The Abbasid dynasty (750-1258 C.E.)

    • Showed no special favor to Arab military aristocracy

    • Empire still growing, but not initiated by the central government

  • Abbasid administration

    • Relied heavily on Persians, Persian techniques of statecraft

    • Central authority ruled from the court at Baghdad, newly built city

    • Governors ruled provinces; Ulama, qadis (judges) ruled local areas

  • Harun al-Rashid (786-809 C.E.)

    • Represented the high point of the dynasty

    • Baghdad became metropolis, center for commerce, industry, and culture

  • Abbasid decline

    • Struggle for succession between Harun's sons led to civil war

    • Governors built their own power bases, regional dynasties

    • Local military commanders took title of Sultan

    • Popular uprisings and peasant rebellions weakened the dynasty

    • A Persian noble seized control of Baghdad in 945

    • Later, the Seljuk Turks controlled the imperial family


An urban civilization

AN URBAN CIVILIZATION

  • Arab Urban History

    • Pre-Islamic Arabs were both urban, bedouin

      • Mecca, Medina, Yemeni cities, cities of Palmyra, Arab Petropolis

      • Center of the city was a market place often shared with religious center

      • Cities designed with human-environment interaction in mind

      • Nomads came to city to trade, city often settled by whole tribes

      • Arabs had settled in cities in Syria, Iraq, Jordan

    • Arabic cities linked to wider world through merchants, trade

    • Arab cities exposed to Jews, Persians, Monophysites, Sabeans

  • Arabic Empire and Urban Growth

    • Islam as a culture requires mosque, merchant: very urban in outlook

      • Capital moved from Mecca to Damascus by Umayyads

      • Arabs founded military cities on edges of desert to rule empire

    • As empire grew, needed something more permanent

      • Abbasids moved capital from Damascus, Kufa to Baghdad

      • Other designed for purpose cities include Fez, Cairo, Tunis

    • Increasing agricultural production contributed to growth of cities

      • Cities: centers for administration, industry, trade, education, faith

      • Many different ethnic minorities settled in Muslim cities (quarters)

      • Mosque at center surrounded by suk, square, in decreasing social order


Harun al rashid baghdad

HARUN AL RASHID & BAGHDAD


Changed economics

CHANGED ECONOMICS

  • Merchants, pilgrims, travelers exchanged foods across empire

  • Exchange and spread of food and industrial crops

    • Indian plants traveled to other lands of the empire

    • Staple crops: sugarcane, rice, new varieties of sorghum and wheat

    • Vegetables: spinach, artichokes, eggplants

    • Fruits: oranges, lemons, limes, bananas, coconuts, watermelons, mangoes

    • Industrial crops: cotton, indigo, henna

  • Effects of new crops

    • Increased varieties and quantities of food

    • Industrial crops: basis for a thriving textile industry

    • Foodstuffs increased health, populations of cities

  • Agricultural experimentation

    • Numerous agricultural manuals

    • Agricultural methods and techniques improved

    • Improved irrigation


A vast trade zone

A VAST TRADE ZONE

  • Camels and caravans

    • Overland desert trade traveled mostly by camel caravan

    • Caravanserais (motel, corrals) in Islamic cities

    • Trading goods usually luxury in nature

  • Maritime trade based on technological borrowing

    • Arab, Persian mariners borrowed

      • Compass from the Chinese

      • Lateen sail from southeast Asian, Indian mariners

      • Astrolabe from the Hellenistic mariners

    • Organization and dominance of trade

      • In North Africa across Sahara, down Nile, SW Asia, to India

      • Eastern Mediterranean, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Arabia Gulf down coasts

      • Many cities grew rich from trade

      • Entrepreneurs often pooled their resources in group investments

      • Different kinds of joint endeavors

  • Banks

    • Operated on large scale and provided extensive services

    • Letters of credit, or sakk, functioned as bank checks

  • Exchange of Ideas included Islam, technology, culture


Islamic trade

ISLAMIC TRADE


Women s changing status

WOMEN’S CHANGING STATUS

  • Pre-Islamic Arab Women

    • Arabs as nomads allowed women many rights

    • Women often poets, tribe leaders

    • Some evidence of matrilineal tribes

  • The Quran and women

    • Quran enhanced rights, security of women

    • Forced husbands to honor contracts, love women

    • Allowed women to own property, protected from exploitation

  • What produced the change

    • Foreign Contacts changed the perspective

      • Adopted veiling from Mesopotamia, Persia

      • Isolation from India through purdah, harem

    • Muslim rights for women

      • Often weaken through Hadith, traditions

      • Often reduced, ignored

      • Patriarch beliefs reinforced by conquest

      • Yet Quran, sharia also reinforced male domination

      • Role of Hadith, Arab traditions reinforced male domination

  • Women in West Africa, Central Asia

    • Much freer than their Arab, Persian, Indian counterparts

    • Carryover of traditions from previous cultural tolerance of women


Image of women

IMAGE OF WOMEN


Islam other contacts

ISLAM & OTHER CONTACTS

  • Persian influence on Islam

    • After Arabs most prominent of Muslims, resisted Arabization

      • Cultural traditions often borrowed heavily by Islam

      • Became early followers of Shia

    • Government and regionalism

      • Many advisors (vizer is Persian word) to Caliphs were Persian

      • Cultured, diplomatic language of Abbassid court became Persian

    • Literary achievements

      • Omar Khayyam was greatest of Medieval Muslim poets

      • The Arabian Nights largely in a Persian style

  • Turkish influences

    • Central Asian nomads converted to Islam, developed literary culture

    • Invaded SW Asia and made caliphate dependent on Turkish nomads

    • Formed military might, leadership of late Abbassid state

  • Indian Influences

    • Purdah and harem borrowed from Hindus

    • "Hindi numerals," which Europeans called "Arabic numerals"

  • Greek Influences

    • Muslims philosophers especially liked Plato and Aristotle; Greek math

    • Effort of harmonizing two traditions met resistance from Sufis


Islamic cultural tradition

ISLAMIC CULTURAL TRADITION

  • Quran, sharia were main sources to formulate moral guidelines

  • Constant struggle between what is Arabic and what is Islamic

    • Use of Arabic script as only language of Islam strengthened trend

    • Persians, Turks, Indians, and Africans struggled for acceptance

  • Promotion of Islamic values

    • Ulama, qadis, and missionaries were main agents

    • Education also promoted Islamic values

  • Sufis

    • Islamic mystics, effective missionaries

    • Encouraged devotion by singing, dancing

    • Led ascetic, holy lives, won respect

    • Encouraged followers to revere Allah in own ways

    • Tolerated those who associated Allah with other beliefs

  • The hajj

    • The Kaa'ba became the symbol of Islamic cultural unity

    • Pilgrims helped to spread Islamic beliefs and values


Turks islam

TURKS & ISLAM

  • Early Turkic Tribes

    • Originated in Central Asia, Mongolia

    • The Götürk Empire arose c. 6th century

      • Confederacy of tribes united under khans

      • Remained nomadic but adopted Syriac script

      • Some conversion to Christianity, Buddhism

      • Broke up over rivalries between clans

    • Turkish tribes Turks migrated

      • Towards Iran, Russian Steppes

      • Became the Khazars and Seljuks

  • The Seljuk Turks

    • The Sultanate

      • Converted to Sunni Islam while in Central Asia

      • 1037: group migrated into Iran, set up a sultanate

      • 1055: captured Baghdad and later Jerusalem

      • 1071: defeated Byzantines at Manzikert and occupied Anatolia

    • Sultans and Mameluks

      • Left Abbasid caliphs as figurehead

      • Sultans were military commanders and governors of provinces

      • Mameluks were slave soldiers – Turkish slaves formed military aristocracy

      • Large numbers settled Anatolia producing a flowering of Turkish culture

  • Sultanates of Delhi and Egypt were Mameluk, Turkish


The crusades

THE CRUSADES

  • Religiously sanctioned wars

    • Muslim Jihad has its Christian counterpart

      • Early Islam sanctioned Holy Wars, initially Christianity did not

      • Muslim conquest of largely Christian lands changed tradition

    • Christian Reconquista in Iberia

      • Christian knights sanctioned by Church fought Muslims

      • Warfare in Iberia, Sicily, Sardinia, Crete preceded 11th century

  • “The Crusades”

    • A Changed Situation in Southwest Asia

      • Turkish conquests changed situation

        • They conquered Holy Land

        • Arabs had permitted pilgrimage, Turks curtailed it

      • The Byzantine Empire

        • Byzantines in Schism with West asked Pope for help

        • Pope saw chance to reunite churches and end schism

      • Church calls for crusades, offers indulgences

    • More than nine crusaders

      • Initial one conquered Holy Land and set up crusader states

      • Next crusades all called to defend conquests

    • Opened up West to Islamic contacts but had not impact on Islam


Other islamic regions

OTHER ISLAMIC REGIONS

  • Al-Andalus

    • Iberian Peninsular largely conquered by Muslim Berbers 711 – 714

    • Claimed independence from the Abbasid dynasty

    • Participated in commercial life of the larger Islamic world

    • Products of al-Andalus enjoyed a reputation for excellence

    • Cordoba was a center of learning, commerce, architecture

    • After death of Abd al Rahman III broke up into petty kingdoms

    • A unique blended culture

      • Arab, Latin, German, Islamic, Christian, Jewish

      • Very tolerant and integrated society

    • Warred for 700 years with Christian kingdoms in north

  • North Africa

    • Strong followers of Shia, broke with Abbassids

    • Berbers followed many puritanical Shia like movements

    • Eventually Fatimids conquered Egypt, formed rival caliphate

  • Central Asia

    • Largely Turkish, Persian and Islamic but not Arabic

    • Tended to be distant from Baghdad and more tolerant

    • Integrated into trans-Eurasian trade network


Muslim spain the reconquista

MUSLIM SPAIN & THE RECONQUISTA


Egypt during period

EGYPT DURING PERIOD

  • Arab Conquest of Egypt

    • Conquered c. 639 CE when Coptic Christians opened borders to Muslims

    • Arabs ruled through governors but did not seek conversions

    • Umayyad and Abbasid rule weakened and local sultans took great power

    • Over-taxation led to revolts and settlement of Arab tribes as soldiers

  • Fatimid Egypt

    • Arab Shia Muslim dynasty of Egypt 909 – 1171

    • Rulers belonged to Ismaili branch of Shia Islam

    • Proclaimed themselves Caliphs

    • Established Cairo

  • Ayyubid Egypt

    • A Sunni Dynasty of Kurdish origins 1171 – 1341

    • Saladin dissolves Fatimid rule, proclaims himself sultan

    • Spends early part conquering Holy Land, Hejaz, North Africa

    • Warred with Crusaders but established an amicable relationship

  • Lifestyles

    • A period of toleration between Muslims, Jews, Coptic Christians

    • A time of great prosperity where Egypt was a center of interactions

    • Conversion was slow but gradual: Arabic replaced Coptic as main language


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