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Containment of Soviet Aggression. PowerPoint by Mr. Hataway Created January 25, 2012. Today, I will learn… America’s (foreign) policy of containing communism. I will learn it by… Cornell Notes and paying attention I have learned it when I can…

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containment of soviet aggression

Containment ofSoviet Aggression

PowerPoint by Mr. Hataway

Created January 25, 2012

slide2

Today, I will learn…

    • America’s (foreign) policy of containing communism.
  • I will learn it by…
    • Cornell Notes and paying attention
  • I have learned it when I can…
    • Create a Frayer Model of the word ‘Containment’
essential question
Essential Question
  • How did the United States go about containing the spread of Communism?
soviet aggression
Soviet Aggression
  • Between 1918 and 1920 communists defeated anti-communists in Russia.
soviet aggression1
Soviet Aggression
  • In 1922, the communists created the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR or Soviet Union).
soviet aggression2
Soviet Aggression
  • European countries and the United States feared that communist expansion threatened established government particularly democracy and freedom.
  • Following World War II, communists sought to take over Greece and establish an airbase in Turkey.
principles of containment
Principles of Containment
  • Soviet behavior? Why?
  • George Kennan, U.S. Diplomat in Moscow, wrote the “Long Letter”
    • Russia’s insecurity and fear of the West – reason why it would be impossible to reach agreement with Russia.
principles of containment1
Principles of Containment
  • Kennan proposes containment (keeping communism within its present territory through diplomatic, economic, and military actions).
principles of containment2
Principles of Containment
  • Truman Doctrine (Mar 1947)
    • United States will give economic and military support (aid) to countries fighting communism.
    • Requests $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey to fight Soviet aggression.
principles of containment3
Principles of Containment
  • Truman Doctrine (Mar 1947)
    • Truman believed that the United States should support “free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures”
    • This principle guided American foreign policy for many years.
principles of containment4
Principles of Containment
  • Marshall Plan (1947)
    • a.k.a. European Recovery Plan
    • Proposed by Sec. of State, George C. Marshall, former army Chief of Staff during WWII.
principles of containment5
Principles of Containment
  • Marshall Plan (June 1947)
    • U.S. aid to Europe to help rebuild after WWII; provided $13 billion in grants and loans.
    • Increased trade between the United States and European nations.
    • Huge factor in reviving the European economies and stabilizing governments (thus preventing the expansion of communism).
    • Marshall received the 1953 Nobel Peace Prize for the plan.
discussion question
Discussion Question
  • Why provide aid to Europe?
    • To prevent European nations from fall into communism.
the berlin crisis
The Berlin Crisis
  • Partitioning Germany
    • Divided by Allies into four sectors resulted in Berlin being a divided city within the Soviet sector.
the berlin crisis1
The Berlin Crisis
  • American, English, & French sectors united into West Germany (1948)
  • In response, Soviets block all road and rail traffic into East Germany.
the berlin crisis2
The Berlin Crisis
  • Berlin Airlift – eleven months of food, medicine, and coal to West Berlin.
slide21

During the Berlin Airlift, planes bringing food and other supplies to West Berlin landed every three minutes for eleven months.

new alliances
New Alliances
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)
    • Nine Western European nations, the United States, Canada, and Iceland formed a military alliance and pledge to defend the other in the event of an outside attack.
new alliances1
New Alliances
  • Warsaw Pact (1955)
    • Soviet Union responded by forming its own military alliance.
    • It included USSR & seven Eastern Europe satellites.
discussion question1
Discussion Question
  • Why was NATO created?
    • It was created by 12 countries, including the United States, and several Western European countries, as a mutual defense alliance in order to help maintain peace in Europe.
the cold war spreads east
The Cold War Spreads East
  • Nationalist and Communist forces battle in a civil war for control over China – Communists win creating the People’s Republic of China.
  • China and USSR sign a treaty of friendship and alliance in 1950.
the cold war spreads east1
The Cold War Spreads East
  • US keeps Communist China out of the UN, but allows Taiwan to stay.
  • US sees Japan, not China, as its ally in defending Asia from communism.
discussion question2
Discussion Question
  • What two events heightened American concerns about the Cold War?
    • Soviet Union successful test of an atomic bomb.
    • Communist forces taking control of China.
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