Welcome to ebenezer s sound tech training
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Welcome to Ebenezer’s Sound Tech Training. I’m sure this thing worked last Sunday. The Importance of Acoustics. What did he say?. The Effects of Too Much REVERBERATION. Impacts spoken word more than music. Impacts those with hearing loss the most.

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Welcome to ebenezer s sound tech training

Welcome to Ebenezer’s Sound Tech Training

I’m sure this thing worked last Sunday


The importance of acoustics

The Importance of Acoustics

What did he say?


The effects of too much reverberation

The Effects of Too Much REVERBERATION

  • Impacts spoken word more than music.

  • Impacts those with hearing loss the most.

  • Makes certain words difficult to understand.

  • Causes listener fatigue.


How to control reverberation

How To Control REVERBERATION

  • Use construction techniques which minimize reflections.

  • Aim speakers to focus sound away from ceiling and walls.

  • Use equalization to reduce frequencies which naturally resonate in the room.


As a sound tech your biggest mistake is adding too much bass

As A Sound Tech,Your Biggest Mistake is Adding Too Much Bass


Or having stage monitor levels set too high

Or having stage monitor levels set too high

The congregation needs to listen to the main speakers, not the monitors!


Always check out the system before the service

Always Check out the system before the service….

  • Mixer controls set normal.

  • Mikes connected and working.

  • Instruments connected and working.

  • Monitor speakers aimed correctly.

  • Wireless batteries in good condition.

  • Service tape loaded and ready to go.


Welcome to ebenezer s sound tech training

Two minutes prior to start of service is NOT the ideal time to begin a trouble-shooting process!

Mark


Powering up the system

POWERING UP THE SYSTEM

ON FIRST

OFF FIRST

Avoid damaging “POPS” - always turn power on or off in the order indicated!


Welcome to ebenezer s sound tech training

NEVER CONNECT OR DISCONNECT MICROPHONES OR INSTRUMENTS….

Unless the channels are muted or the system is off.

Pops, clicks, and buzzes can damage speakers!


Always use the right cable

Always use the right cable!

Small round shielded cable for instruments

Large flat unshielded cable for speakers


Examining signal flow

Examining Signal Flow


It all starts here

It All Starts Here…

DI Box

Mixer


The big picture

The Big Picture

Peavey

AUX-2

Fold-back

Speaker

70 Volt Amp

Class

Speakers

70 Volt Amp

Bogen

From Signal Sources

Mixer

Main

Speakers

EQ

CONTROLLER

MAIN

Peavey

Tannoy

Tannoy

Stereo Amp

AUX-1

Monitor

Speakers

EQ

Peavey

Yamaha

Mackie

Peavey


Class speakers actually consist of

Class Speakers actually consist of...

  • Two speakers in the Narthex.

  • A speaker in the nursery.

  • A speaker in each of the young kids rooms.

  • A speaker in the kitchen.

  • Each room has its own volume control located in the room.


Don t mess with the graphic equalizers

DON’T MESS WITH THE GRAPHIC EQUALIZERS!

You can cause real problems with the system.

Setting them requires the proper test equipment!


The mackie sr24 4 mixing console

The Mackie SR24-4 Mixing Console


Two important switches

TWO IMPORTANT SWITCHES

Master Power

Phantom Power

Both must be on at all times!

Mixer Rear Panel, lower left corner


What is phantom power

What is Phantom Power?

  • Low voltage applied to the mike lines by the mixer.

  • Used to power electret mikes and active direct boxes.

  • If the switch is off, choir mikes, podium mike and Peavey direct boxes will be dead.


Welcome to ebenezer s sound tech training

The Mono Channel Strip

Learn one and you know all twenty.

Signal Flow Top to Bottom


The trim control

The TRIM control

  • The first stop for the signal at the mixer.

  • Sets the overall level of the signal going to the rest of the mixer circuitry.

  • Compensates for differing levels of various input devices.

  • Proper setting is essential to low noise and ample “head room”.


Trim control warning

TRIM Control Warning!

TURN DOWN THAT TRIM!

If the red OL light comes on then your trim control is set too high!


Welcome to ebenezer s sound tech training

What is ample HEAD ROOM?

No, its not having enough rest rooms on a ship!


Welcome to ebenezer s sound tech training

Clip

Head Room

Normal

Signal Level

Noise

Time


Welcome to ebenezer s sound tech training

Clipping Causes Distortion…..

Clipping

Clip

Normal

Signal Level

Noise

Time


Welcome to ebenezer s sound tech training

…..and distortion can blow your speakers!

Yikes!


Hard feedback can toast your speakers too

Hard Feedback Can Toast your speakers too

If you go “ouch” after that last squeal, chances are so did your speakers!


And so can pops clicks and buzzes

and so can pops, clicks, and buzzes

caused by plugging/unplugging hot mikes or instruments!

Always mute the channel at the mixer first!


Ways to set the trim control

Ways to set the TRIM Control

The Traditional Way….

Back down from clipping and hope for the best.

TRIM?

Or…..


The mackie way sets the gain structure accurately by using the vu meter lights

The MACKIE Waysets the gain structure accurately by using the VU meter lights

  • Channel SOLO button down.

  • SOLO MODE in Pre-fade (Up).

  • Adjust TRIM for zero on the VU Meter.


The aux 1 control

The AUX 1 Control

  • Controls how much channel signal is sent to the stage monitor speakers.

  • Always Pre-Fade, which means it is ….

  • not affected by the channel EQ.

  • not affected by the PAN control.

  • not affected by the channel fader.

  • affected by the MUTE control.


Aux 1 monitor rule

AUX 1 (Monitor) Rule

Never mix choir mikes into the stage monitors!

Feedback will be too difficult to control.

I wish I hadn’t done that!


The aux 2 control

The AUX 2 Control

  • Controls how much channel signal is sent to the stage fold-back speaker.

  • Like AUX 1, it is always Pre-Fade.

  • Used to send voice to the front edge of the stage.

  • Speaker does not have the frequency range to handle music.


The aux 3 control

The AUX 3 Control

You get a break - we don’t use it!


The aux 4 control

The AUX 4 Control

  • Controls how much channel signal is sent to the CD/TAPE machine for recording.

  • Used in post-fade mode (PRE button up) so that the signal….

  • Is controlled by the channel fader.

  • Is processed by the channel EQ.

  • Is affected by the PAN control.

  • Is affected by the MUTE control.


Welcome to ebenezer s sound tech training

Please make sure the

PRE button is out.

This places AUX 3 and

AUX 4 in the post-fader mode.

.


The aux 5 control

The AUX 5 Control

  • Controls how much channel signal is sent to the SERVICE TAPE MACHINE.

  • Always post-fader.

Today’s Sermon


The aux 6 control

The AUX 6 Control

  • Controls how much channel signal is sent to the VCR.

  • Always post-fader.

Joe’s Rental Video


The channel eq controls

The Channel EQ Controls

  • Make minor adjustments to tone quality of the channel.

  • Does not affect monitor or fold-back speakers.

  • Straight up (U) is flat (no EQ).

  • For microphones always cut, never add.


Use eq sparingly

Use EQ Sparingly!

U

EQ

One or two tick marks is usually enough.


On microphone channels

On Microphone Channels

Always cut, never add EQ

It avoids feedback


The hi eq control

The HI EQ Control

Controls High Frequencies

Too much high - cut a little


The low eq control

The LOW EQ Control

Controls Low Frequencies

Too much bass - cut a little


The mid and freq eq controls work together

The MID and FREQ EQ Controls Work Together

  • MID controls the amount of add or cut.

  • FREQ controls the frequency to be added or cut.

  • Set MID then sweep FREQ to get the desired effect.


Welcome to ebenezer s sound tech training

If you get confused…..

Just put the EQ knobs to their center positions. The system should sound acceptable with the EQ flat.


Welcome to ebenezer s sound tech training

The LOW CUT button reduces very low frequencies.

.

Depress it to reduce handling and wind noise on hand-held, wireless and pulpit mikes.

Leave it up for choir mikes and instruments.


Now lets take a look at the mackie video

Now lets take a look at the Mackie video….

and learn more about how EQ works

Note: The mixer in the video is different than ours but it demonstrates the concept of EQ very well.


The graph you ll see on the video

The Graph you’ll see on the video….

Volume

Bass

Treble

Frequency

20 Hz

20,000 Hz


Mackie video review

Mackie Video Review….

  • We have only one mid EQ covering 100 Hz to 8 KHz.

  • Our bandwidth is fixed at 1.5 octaves so there is no bandwidth control.

  • The concept is the same as in the video.

  • The HI and LOW EQ are the same.

  • The LOW CUT filter is the same.


Continuing with our sr24 4

Continuing with our SR24-4….


The pan control

The PAN Control

Since we combine the mixers left and right stereo channels into a single monaural output, the PAN controls do nothing.

Simply leave the PAN controls centered.


The red ol light

The Red OL Light

You’re Clipping!

TURN DOWN THE TRIM!


The green signal light

The Green Signal Light

You have signal - all is well….


The mute button

The MUTE Button

  • The only way to completely disable an input….

  • Always mute unused microphones.

  • Always mute before connecting or disconnecting input devices.


The solo button

The SOLO Button

  • Sends the channel to headphones and VU meter.

  • Good for troubleshooting.

  • Used to set TRIM control.

  • Can be used to set mix.


The l r button

The L-R Button

Signal Buss Company

If you don’t assign the channel to a BUSS, the signal won’t go anywhere!

For simplicity, always assign to the main L-R buss.


The fader control

The FADER Control

  • Controls how much signal goes to L-R and Post-Fade AUX outputs.

  • Used to set mix into main speakers.

  • Usually falls near “U” mark if TRIM is set properly.


Welcome to ebenezer s sound tech training

Now you know how to control 20 of the 24 channels

Only 4 more to go!


The stereo channels

The Stereo Channels

  • Channels 21 and 22 are combined.

  • Channels 23 and 24 are combined.

  • Used to combine stereo output from tape and CD machines.

  • The only difference from mono channels is in EQ and use of the PAN control.


The eq differences

The EQ Differences

Instead of swept EQ for the mid range, channels 21/22 and 23/24 have separate HI MID and LOW MID controls.

Set these for the desired effect just like you do for the HI and LOW EQ controls.


Special pan control use

Special PAN Control use

  • Normally set to center.

  • For Kids Choir split-track tapes pan left or right to send only the music track to main speaker while voice and music tracks go to monitor speakers.


Welcome to ebenezer s sound tech training

Now for the output side of the mixer.

Don’t let it scare you - we don’t use most of it!


Welcome to ebenezer s sound tech training

There are 6 AUX SEND MASTERS

One for each buss. Remember….

1 - Stage monitors.

2 - Fold-back monitor.

3 - Not used.

4 - CD/Tape.

5 - Service tape recorder.

6 - VCR record.


Welcome to ebenezer s sound tech training

Signal Buss Company

Channel AUX

AUX SEND

The channel AUX determines how much signal gets on the buss.

The AUX SEND MASTER determines how much signal gets off the buss.


Welcome to ebenezer s sound tech training

Need more keyboard in the monitor mix - turn up AUX 1 on the keyboard channel.

Need more of everything in the monitor mix - turn up the AUX 1 SEND MASTER.


Welcome to ebenezer s sound tech training

Each AUX SEND has a SOLO button.

Want to hear what’s going to the monitor speakers? Press the AUX 1 Send Master SOLO button. You’ll hear the whole mix.

The VU Meter also reads the level of the signal going to the monitor speakers while the SOLO button is pressed.


The vu level meter

The VU Level Meter

  • Used to measure signal levels.

  • Main L/R Output if no solo buttons pressed.

  • Channel Signal when a solo button is pressed.


The rude solo light

The RUDE SOLO Light

Flashes to warn you when the VU meter is reading a SOLO channel signal, rather than the main L-R signal.


The solo level

The SOLO LEVEL

Sets the level of signal coming over the solo buss.

Normally, set it about half way (U).


The solo mode

The SOLO MODE

  • Determines if the individual channel solo is taken before or after the fader control.

  • Normally left in the post fade AFL (down) position.

  • Exception when setting TRIM controls.


Never press these

Never Press These!!!

Pressing TAPE RETURN TO PHONES will kill all headphone output.

Pressing TAPE RETURN TO MAIN MIX will kill all main speaker output.

Disappearing Sound


Phones c r level

PHONES/C-R LEVEL

Adjust for a comfortable headphone level.

Note: C-R stands for Control Room.


Main mix fader

MAIN MIX FADER

Adjusts the overall level going to the main and classroom speakers.


Talkback

Adjust talkback level here

TALKBACK

Push MAIN MIX for main speakers

Push AUX 1&2 for stage and foldback speakers

  • Sends console mike to main, stage, and foldback speakers.

  • Sound Tech can talk to Choir Director during rehearsals.


Now for some accessory items

Now for some accessory items….


Dynamic microphones

Dynamic Microphones

  • General purpose hand-held.

  • Working range 3 to 6 inches.

  • Good for solos and small groups.

  • Low output - trim above 3/4 full.

  • Requires no phantom power from mixer.


Electret microphones

Electret Microphones

  • Condenser element with built-in preamp.

  • Requires phantom power from mixer.

  • Used for choir and pulpit.

  • Sensitive - working range 2 feet or more.

  • Exhibit bass when you get too close.

  • High output - Trim set between 1/4 and 1/2 full.


Wireless microphones

Wireless Microphones

  • There are two wireless receivers.

  • There are three wireless microphones….

  • One receiver works with a lapel mike.

  • One receiver works with the other lapel mike OR the hand-held wireless mike, never both!


Welcome to ebenezer s sound tech training

Use only name brand alkaline or lithium batteries

in the wireless mikes!

Neveready discount

battery

I’m sorry


The telex wireless receivers

The Telex Wireless Receivers

Signal Light

Diversity Light


The telex wireless receivers1

The Telex Wireless Receivers

Diversity Light

  • Signal light indicates RF signal received.

  • Diversity changes orange/green to indicate antenna receiving the best signal.

Signal Light


The diversity receiver

The Diversity Receiver

Reflective Surface

Multipath Signal

Direct Signal

Direct Signal

A

B

Direct and Multipath signals cancel at antenna B.

Receiver picks antenna A which still has a good signal.


Receiver squelch control

Receiver Squelch Control

  • Not a normal sound tech adjustment.

  • Located on the rear of the receiver.

  • Cuts receiver off to prevent “hiss” when no RF signal is present.

  • If set too high, sound will chop off as mike is moved about.

  • If set too low, “hiss” will be present when transmitter is turned off.


Observe the 3 to 1 rule for microphone placement

Observe the 3 to 1 Rule for Microphone Placement

1 FT

3 FT

The distance between microphones is at least 3 times the distance between the singer and his microphone.


Why the 3 to 1 rule

Why the 3 to 1 Rule?

  • Minimizes picking up the same sound with multiple microphones.

  • Minimizes Comb Filtering effect which….

  • Often causes a “hollow” sound.

  • Causes sound to change with movement.


Welcome to ebenezer s sound tech training

When two or more microphones pick up the same sound source from different distances, Comb-Filtering is the result.

Due to the difference in sound travel time, certain frequencies cancel when combined at the mixer.

Comb-Filtering makes the signal sound “hollow”


Comb filtering like the teeth of a comb

Comb-Filtering….“like the teeth of a comb”

Volume

Bass

Frequency

Treble


Choir microphone placement

Choir Microphone Placement

6 - 9 FT

6 - 9 FT

Always use the minimum number of mikes necessary to cover the area.


Position the choir mikes

Position the Choir Mikes

  • 6 to 9 feet apart.

  • 2 to 3 feet in front of the front choir row.

  • 2 to 3 feet above the heads of the last row.

  • Pointing at the last row.

2-3 FT

2-3 FT


Always point mikes at the sound source

Always Point Mikes at the Sound Source

Mikes are more directional at high frequencies so they exhibit more bass off-axis.

Like this

Never like this


Keep the number of open mikes to a minimum

Keep the number of open mikes to a minimum….

  • It improves gain before feedback.

  • It reduces noise and reverberation pickup.

  • It minimizes comb-filtering effects.

Never use two when one will do!


The pro co db 1 direct box

The Pro Co DB-1 Direct Box

  • Also known as a “DI” Box.

  • The most versatile.

  • Takes Instrument, Line, or Speaker Level Inputs.

  • Converts them to microphone level.

  • Has a HI-CUT filter for speaker inputs.

  • Has a ground-lift switch to reduce hum.


The pro co db 1 direct box1

The Pro Co DB-1 Direct Box

LO-Z XLR Output

to System

Instrument or Speaker Output

Instrument or Speaker Input

Also known as a “DI” Box


The pro co db 1 direct box2

The Pro Co DB-1 Direct Box

Ground/Lift Switch

Hi-Cut/Flat Switch

Speaker/Instrument Switch


The peavey direct box

The Peavey Direct Box

  • Active - requires phantom power from the mixer.

  • Has the best frequency response.

  • Takes only line and instrument level inputs.

  • Converts them to microphone level outputs.

  • Simple to use - no switches to set.

  • Peavey is the first choice unless you need the versatile features of the Pro Co.


The peavey edb 1 direct box

The Peavey EDB-1 Direct Box

DI Box

Lo-Z XLR Output to System

Hi-Z Input from Instrument

Power Light

Only two connections are needed


In line transformer

In-Line Transformer

  • Small and easy to use.

  • Good only for instruments such as guitars.

Transformer


The shure in line transformer

The Shure In-Line Transformer


The headset monitor adapter

The Headset Monitor Adapter

Volume

Plug to monitor speaker

Used for the drummer


The service tape machine

The Service Tape Machine

VU Meter

Record Level

Normally used for recording

Tape Speed


Don t use dolby on church recordings

Don’t use DOLBY on Church Recordings

You never know if the person playing it back will have the Dolby capability.

If you don’t use Dolby to record then the tape is good to play back on any machine.


Make sure the tape speed is centered during recording

Make sure the Tape Speed is centered during recording!!

Tape Speed centered

Dolby

and the Dolby is off.

.…or Speed Fixed


To queue a tape next song

To Queue a Tape, next song….

Press Music Search >>


To queue a tape repeat song

To Queue a Tape, repeat song….

Press Music Search <<


The cd tape unit

The CD/TAPE Unit

CD Track Select

CD Controls

Tape Controls

Normally used for playback


The cd tape unit1

The CD/TAPE Unit

Output Switch to MIX position

or their will be no output from the CD!


Make sure the tape speed is centered during recording1

Make sure the tape speed is centered during recording!!

Tape Speed

and the Dolby switch is off.

Dolby


The cd tape unit2

The CD/TAPE Unit

  • Single to play only selected track.

  • Continuous to play selected track forward.

Single..Cont


To queue a cd track

To Queue a CD Track....

3. Press Track Number (use +10 for tracks greater than 9)

4. Press Play

1. Select Single or Continuous

2. Press Queue


To queue a tape next song1

To Queue a Tape, next song….

Simultaneously Press….

Play

and Fast Forward


To queue a tape repeat song1

To Queue a Tape, repeat song….

Simultaneously Press….

Play

and Rewind


What is a split track tape

What is a Split-Track Tape?

  • A special choir tape with voices on one channel and accompaniment on the other.

  • Using the Split-Track tape switch, you can play back voices, accompaniment, or both.

  • Generally, use both during practice sessions and accompaniment during the performance.


Split track tape switch

Split Track Tape Switch

Selects record or playback of left only, right only, or left and right channels.

RECORD

LEFT

L + R

HEADSET

RIGHT

CD-TAPE

SERVICE

RECORDER

Headset is for monitoring mixer.

This switch prevents the possibility of a feed-back loop during record.


You can send music and voice to the monitors with music only to the main speakers

You can send music and voice to the monitors with music only to the main speakers.

  • Good to help out the kids choir.

  • Switch to L + R position.

  • Pan mixer channel hard left or right to select music only for the main speakers.

  • Remember - choir mikes will pick up some voice from the monitors.


The cable test box

The Cable Test Box

A good way to check for defective cables….

1

2

3


Never connect anything but cables to the test box

Never Connect Anything but Cables to the Test Box!

I love it when

they do that.

Microphone Sales Guy


To check any 3 wire cable

To check any 3-wire cable

  • Mike cables with 3-pin XLR connectors

  • 1/4-inch Tip Ring Sleeve (TRS) connectors

  • Press button #1 and light #1 comes on

  • Press button #2 and light #2 comes on

  • Press button #3 and light #3 comes on


To check any 2 wire cable

To check any 2-wire cable

  • 1/4-inch Tip Sleeve (TS) connector

  • Press button #1 - lights #1 and #3 come on

  • Press button #2 - light #2 comes on

  • Press button #3 - lights #1 and #3 come on


Now a word about video

Now a word about Video….

JOHN


Video system wiring

Video System Wiring

Audio from Mixer

Audio to Mixer

TV

VCR

Splitter

TV

RF Modulator

Amp

Switch

Splitter

TV

Splitter

Scan Converter

TV

Cart

Computer

Console

Stage


The master power switch for the video monitors

The Master Power Switch for the Video Monitors….

is located in the electric closet


As a sound man you will normally only operate the vcr

As a Sound Man you will normally only operate the VCR

  • Make sure the VCR/COMPUTER switch is in the VCR position.

  • Make sure the monitors are turned on and set to channel 3.

  • Push play on the VCR.

  • Un-mute and adjust the VCR channel level on the mixer for the desired volume.


We ve made it sound man

We’ve made it Sound Man!

He’s finally done!


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