Matter properties and changes
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Matter-Properties and Changes. I will distinguish between physical and chemical properties I will classify matter by composition: element, compound or mixture I will identify observable characteristics of chemical reactions I will explain the fundamental law of conservation of mass.

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Matter-Properties and Changes

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Matter properties and changes

Matter-Properties and Changes

I will distinguish between physical and chemical properties

I will classify matter by composition: element, compound or mixture

I will identify observable characteristics of chemical reactions

I will explain the fundamental law of conservation of mass

Properties of matter

Properties of Matter

I will identify the characteristics of a substance

I will distinguish between physical and chemical properties

I will differentiate among the physical states of matter



  • Matter that has a uniform and unchanging composition

    • Aka pure substance

  • Example 1

    • Table Salt

    • Always 100% sodium chloride

  • Example 2

    • Water

    • H2O


    • Sea water

    • Samples vary by location

    • Amount of salts, water, dissolved substances

Physical properties

Physical Properties

  • A characteristic that can be observed or measured WITHOUT changing the sample’s composition

  • Density

  • Color

  • Odor

  • Taste

  • Hardness

  • Melting point

  • Boiling point

Examples physical properties

Examples-Physical Properties

  • Salt (sodium chloride)

    • Forms solid white crystals at room temperature

    • Unique salty taste

  • Oxygen

    • Colorless

    • Gas at 25 degrees Celsius

    • Melting point -218 degrees Celsius

    • Boiling point -183 degrees Celsius

    • Density 0.0014 g/cc

Extensive properties

Extensive Properties

  • Dependent upon the amount of substance present

  • Examples

    • Mass

    • Volume

    • Length

    • Weight

Intensive properties

Intensive Properties

  • Independent of the amount of the substance present

  • Examples

Chemical properties

Chemical Properties

  • The ability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more other substances


  • The inability of a substance to change into another substance

  • Example

    • Iron forms rust when combined with air

    • Iron + Nitrogen (at room temperature) = no chemical change

Observing properties of matter

Observing Properties of Matter

  • Every substance has its own unique set of physical and chemical properties

  • May vary depending on conditions of immediate environment

    • Room temperature, standard pressure, etc.

  • Example


States of matter

States of matter

  • Solid

  • Liquid

  • Gas

  • Plasma

    • FUN FACT: (only occurs

      naturally on Earth in the

      form of lightening bolts!)




  • A form of matter that has its own definite shape and volume.

    • Examples

      • Wood

      • Iron

      • Paper

      • Sugar

  • Particles are VERY tightly packed

  • Will only expand SLIGHTLY when heated

  • Does NOT conform to shape of container

  • Incompressible

    • Volume stays the same

    • Example

      • Wax (moldable) but volume doesn’t change



  • A form of matter that flows, has constant volume, and takes the shape of its container

  • Examples

    • Water

    • Blood

    • Mercury

  • Virtually incompressible

  • Tend to expand when heated

  • Liquid Particles

    • NOT rigidly held in place

    • less closely packed than solids

    • Are able to move past each other



  • A form of matter that flows to CONFORM to the shape of its container and fills the ENTIRE volume of its container

  • Examples

    • Neon

      • Lighted signs

    • Methane

      • Cooking

    • Air

      • Mixture of gases

  • Particles are VERY far apart

  • EASILY compressed

  • A substance NATURALLY in the gaseous state at room temperature


  • Vapor

    • The gaseous state of a substance that is a SOLID or LIQUID at room temperature

    • Example

      • steam

Quick think

Quick Think

  • Describe the characteristics that identify a sample of matter as being a substance.

  • Classify each of the following as a physical or chemical property

    • Iron and oxygen form rust

    • Iron is more dense than aluminum

    • Magnesium burns brightly when ignited

    • Oil and water do not mix

    • Mercury melts at -39 ℃

  • Using what you know about the compressibility of gases, explain why the oxygen in a SCUBA tank is compressed.

  • Create a table that describes the three common states of matter in terms of their shape, volume, and compressibility.

Quick think check

Quick Think- Check

  • The sample of matter must have a uniform and unchanging composition to be a substance.

  • Properties

    • Chemical (rust)

    • Physical (density)

    • Chemical (burning)

    • Physical (mixing)

    • Physical (melting) point)

  • Particles of gas are spaced apart and are easily compressed. Therefore, it is possible to put a significant volume of oxygen in the tank, which allows the diver to remain under water longer!

Changes in matter

Changes in Matter

  • I will define physical change and list several common physical changes

  • I will define chemical change and list several indications that a chemical change has taken place

  • I will apply the law of conservation of mass to chemical reactions

Physical changes

Physical CHANGES

  • Alter a substance WITHOUT changing its composition

  • Might result in dramatically different appearance (yet leave the composition of the substance unchanged)

  • Examples

    • Crunching up a piece of aluminum foil

    • Cutting a sheet of paper

    • Breaking a crystal

    • Phase changes (solid, liquid, gas)

Key words of physical changes

Key words of Physical Changes

  • Bend

  • Grind

  • Crumple

  • Split

  • Crush

Chemical changes

Chemical CHANGES

  • A process that involves one or more substances changing into a NEW substance

    • New substance

      • Formed in reaction

      • Different compositions — than original substance(s)

      • Different properties — than original substance(s)

  • Example

    • Fermentation of juice, sugars, and other ingredients (making wine)

    • Rusting of iron (a chemical combo of iron and oxygen)

Chemical changes1

Chemical CHANGES

  • Commonly referred to as a chemical reaction

    • Reactants

      • Starting substances

    • Products

      • New substances

  • Example

    • Reactants = Iron, Oxygen

    • Product = rust

Key words of chemical changes

Key Words of Chemical Changes

  • Explode

  • Rust

  • Oxidize

  • Corrode

  • Tarnish

  • Ferment

  • Burn

  • Rot

The law of conservation of mass

The LAW of Conservation of Mass

  • Mass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction

  • Mass is conserved

  • Mass of Reactants = Mass of Products

Conservation of mass problem

Conservation of Mass Problem

  • Known

    • Mass mercury (II) oxide = 10.0g

    • Mass liquid mercury = 9.26g

  • Unknown

    • Mass formed oxygen = ? g

  • Mass Reactants = Mass Products

  • Mercury (II) oxide = Mercury + Oxygen

  • 10.0g = 9.26g + ?

  • 0.740 g of Oxygen formed

Quick think1

Quick Think

  • Describe the results of a physical change and 3 examples. Repeat with chemical change.

  • A friend tells you, “because composition does not change during a physical change, the appearance of a substance does not change.” Is your friend correct? Explain WHY?

  • Solve each of the following

    • In the complete reaction of 22.99 g of sodium with 35.35 g chlorine, what is the mass of the sodium chloride formed?

    • A 12.2 g sample of X reacts with a sample of Y to form 78.9 g XY. What way the mass of Y that reacted?

Quick think check1

Quick Think-Check

  • During a physical change a substance is altered but its composition does not change. EX melting, freezing, boiling, bending, tearing

  • During a chemical change the composition of a substance IS altered. EX color change, odor, temperatures change, formation of gas or solid from a liquid.

  • The statement is false. Composition doesn’t change but a change in appearance often accompanies a physical change.

  • 58.44g of sodium chloride

  • 66.7 g of Y

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