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Solids, Liquids, and Gases

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Solids, Liquids, and Gases

Chapter 14

- Kinetic Theory -
- All matter is composed of tiny particles
- These particles are in constant, random motion
- The particles collide with each other and with the walls of any container in which they are held
- The amount of energy that the particles lose from these collisions is negligible.

- State of matter depends on arrangement of particles
- Thermal energy and temperature affect arrangement of particles

- Changes of state
- Melting point –
- Melting –
- Heat of fusion –
- Freezing point –
- Freezing -

- Changes of state
- Boiling point –
- Evaporation –
- Heat of vaporization –
- Condensation -
- Sublimation-

- Heating Curves
- A graph of temperature vs. time for heating a substance

- Plasma State –
- Gas heated to where electrons are stripped off atoms

- Thermal Expansion –
- Substances expand when heated and contract when cooled
- Thermometers –
- Hot air balloons –
- What’s with water?

- Solid or Liquid?
- Amorphous Solids –
- Not cyrstalline structure, no set melting point
- Ex….Butter, glass

- Liquid Crystals –
- Retain geometric order during melting phase

- Amorphous Solids –

- Archimedes’ Principle and Buoyancy
- Archimedes’ Principle –
- Buoyancy –
- Buoyancy and weight –
- Why does wood block float and steel block sink?

- Density and buoyancy –
- Why does steel block sink but steel ship floats?

- Pascal’s Principle and Pressure
- Pressure applied to fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid
- Pressure –
- SI unit of pressure is the pascal (Pa)
- 1 pascal is 1 newton per square meter (N/m2)

- Pressure (Pa) = force (N)
area (m2)

- Calculate the pressure of an enclosed fluid on which 1500 N is exerted of an area of 10 m2.

- Calculate the pressure of an enclosed fluid on which 43,000 N is exerted of an area of 5 m2.

- A diver who is 10.0 m underwater experiences a pressure of 202 kPa. If the diver’s surface area is 1.50 m2, with how much total force does the water push on the diver?

- Pascal’s Principle and Pressure
- Pascal’s Principle –
- Input force (N) = output force (N)
input area (m2) output area (m2)

- How hydraulic lifts work?

A hydraulic lift is used to lift a heavy machine that is pushing down on a 3.0 m2 piston with a force of 4,000 N. What force needs to be exerted on a 0.050 m2 piston to lift the machine?

- In changing a tire, a hydraulic jacks lifts 7,468 N on it large piston, which has an area of 0.2827 m2. How much force must be exerted on the small piston if it has an area of 0.01325 m2?

- To lift an object weighing 21,000 N, how much force is needed on a piston with an area of 0.060 m2 if the platform being lifted has an area of 3.0m2?

- Bernoulli’s Principle
- Fluid velocity increases when the flow of fluid is restricted
- Relationship between fluid flow and pressure
- Example hose end sprayer

- Viscosity-
- High viscosities vs. low viscosities
- How does Bernoulli’s principle explain how syrup flows when poured?

- Boyle’s Law – Volume and Pressure
- Inverse relationship
- High pressure, low volume
- Low pressure, high volume

- Equation: initial pressure (kPa) x initial volume (L) = final pressure (kPa) x final volume (L)
PiVi = PfVf

*Any units can be used for volume or pressure, just use the same units

- A 1.75 L sample of Neon had its pressure changed from 75 kPa to 150 kPa. What is the new volume?

- A sample of oxygen gas occupies a volume of 250 mL at 740. torr pressure. What volume will it occupy at 800. torr pressure?

- A helium balloon has a volume of 2.00 L at 101 kPa. As the balloon rises the pressure drops to 97.0 kPa. What is the new volume?

- Charles’s Law– Temperature and Volume
- Direct relationship (as long as the pressure does not change)
- High temperature, high volume
- Low temperature, low volume

- Equation:
initial volume (L) = final volume (L)

initial temp (K) final temp (K)

Vi=Vf

TiTf

- A sample of nitrogen occupies a volume of 250 mL at 298 K. What volume will it occupy at 368 K?

- Oxygen gas was at a temperature of 313 K when it occupies a volume of 2.3 liters. To what temperature should it be raised to occupy a volume of 6.5 liters?

- Chlorine gas occupies a volume of 25 mL at 300 K. What volume will is occupy at 600 K?