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Solids, Liquids, and Gases. Chapter 14. 14-1 – Matter and Thermal Energy. Kinetic Theory - All matter is composed of tiny particles These particles are in constant, random motion The particles collide with each other and with the walls of any container in which they are held

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14 1 matter and thermal energy
14-1 – Matter and Thermal Energy

  • Kinetic Theory -

    • All matter is composed of tiny particles

    • These particles are in constant, random motion

    • The particles collide with each other and with the walls of any container in which they are held

    • The amount of energy that the particles lose from these collisions is negligible.


14 1 matter and thermal energy1
14-1 – Matter and Thermal Energy

  • State of matter depends on arrangement of particles

  • Thermal energy and temperature affect arrangement of particles


14 1 matter and thermal energy2
14-1 – Matter and Thermal Energy

  • Changes of state

    • Melting point –

    • Melting –

    • Heat of fusion –

    • Freezing point –

    • Freezing -


14 1 matter and thermal energy3
14-1 – Matter and Thermal Energy

  • Changes of state

    • Boiling point –

    • Evaporation –

    • Heat of vaporization –

    • Condensation -

    • Sublimation-


14 1 matter and thermal energy4
14-1 – Matter and Thermal Energy

  • Heating Curves

    • A graph of temperature vs. time for heating a substance


14 1 matter and thermal energy5
14-1 – Matter and Thermal Energy

  • Plasma State –

  • Gas heated to where electrons are stripped off atoms


14 1 matter and thermal energy6
14-1 – Matter and Thermal Energy

  • Thermal Expansion –

  • Substances expand when heated and contract when cooled

    • Thermometers –

    • Hot air balloons –

    • What’s with water?


14 1 matter and thermal energy7
14-1 – Matter and Thermal Energy

  • Solid or Liquid?

    • Amorphous Solids –

      • Not cyrstalline structure, no set melting point

      • Ex….Butter, glass

    • Liquid Crystals –

      • Retain geometric order during melting phase


14 2 properties of fluids
14-2 – Properties of Fluids

  • Archimedes’ Principle and Buoyancy

    • Archimedes’ Principle –

    • Buoyancy –

    • Buoyancy and weight –

      • Why does wood block float and steel block sink?

    • Density and buoyancy –

      • Why does steel block sink but steel ship floats?


14 2 properties of fluids1
14-2 – Properties of Fluids

  • Pascal’s Principle and Pressure

    • Pressure applied to fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid

    • Pressure –

    • SI unit of pressure is the pascal (Pa)

    • 1 pascal is 1 newton per square meter (N/m2)

  • Pressure (Pa) = force (N)

    area (m2)


Let s practice
Let’s Practice !!!

  • Calculate the pressure of an enclosed fluid on which 1500 N is exerted of an area of 10 m2.


Let s practice1
Let’s Practice !!!

  • Calculate the pressure of an enclosed fluid on which 43,000 N is exerted of an area of 5 m2.


Let s practice2
Let’s Practice !!!

  • A diver who is 10.0 m underwater experiences a pressure of 202 kPa. If the diver’s surface area is 1.50 m2, with how much total force does the water push on the diver?


14 2 properties of fluids2
14-2 – Properties of Fluids

  • Pascal’s Principle and Pressure

    • Pascal’s Principle –

    • Input force (N) = output force (N)

      input area (m2) output area (m2)

  • How hydraulic lifts work?


Let s practice3
Let’s Practice !!!

A hydraulic lift is used to lift a heavy machine that is pushing down on a 3.0 m2 piston with a force of 4,000 N. What force needs to be exerted on a 0.050 m2 piston to lift the machine?


Let s practice4
Let’s Practice !!!

  • In changing a tire, a hydraulic jacks lifts 7,468 N on it large piston, which has an area of 0.2827 m2. How much force must be exerted on the small piston if it has an area of 0.01325 m2?


Let s practice5
Let’s Practice !!!

  • To lift an object weighing 21,000 N, how much force is needed on a piston with an area of 0.060 m2 if the platform being lifted has an area of 3.0m2?


14 2 properties of fluids3
14-2 – Properties of Fluids

  • Bernoulli’s Principle

    • Fluid velocity increases when the flow of fluid is restricted

    • Relationship between fluid flow and pressure

    • Example hose end sprayer


14 2 properties of fluids4
14-2 – Properties of Fluids

  • Viscosity-

  • High viscosities vs. low viscosities

  • How does Bernoulli’s principle explain how syrup flows when poured?


Behavior of gases
Behavior of Gases

  • Boyle’s Law – Volume and Pressure

  • Inverse relationship

    • High pressure, low volume

    • Low pressure, high volume

  • Equation: initial pressure (kPa) x initial volume (L) = final pressure (kPa) x final volume (L)

    PiVi = PfVf

    *Any units can be used for volume or pressure, just use the same units


Let s practice6
Let’s Practice !!!

  • A 1.75 L sample of Neon had its pressure changed from 75 kPa to 150 kPa. What is the new volume?


Let s practice7
Let’s Practice !!!

  • A sample of oxygen gas occupies a volume of 250 mL at 740. torr pressure. What volume will it occupy at 800. torr pressure?


Let s practice8
Let’s Practice !!!

  • A helium balloon has a volume of 2.00 L at 101 kPa. As the balloon rises the pressure drops to 97.0 kPa. What is the new volume?


Behavior of gases1
Behavior of Gases

  • Charles’s Law– Temperature and Volume

  • Direct relationship (as long as the pressure does not change)

    • High temperature, high volume

    • Low temperature, low volume

  • Equation:

    initial volume (L) = final volume (L)

    initial temp (K) final temp (K)

    Vi=Vf

    TiTf


Let s practice9
Let’s Practice !!!

  • A sample of nitrogen occupies a volume of 250 mL at 298 K. What volume will it occupy at 368 K?


Let s practice10
Let’s Practice !!!

  • Oxygen gas was at a temperature of 313 K when it occupies a volume of 2.3 liters. To what temperature should it be raised to occupy a volume of 6.5 liters?


Let s practice11
Let’s Practice !!!

  • Chlorine gas occupies a volume of 25 mL at 300 K. What volume will is occupy at 600 K?


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