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First Coordination Meeting of Regional Air Quality Initiatives and Programs in Asia. Cornie Huizenga, CAI-Asia Secretariat. Grand Sheraton 16 June, 2004 Bangkok, Thailand. Overview of Presentation. Background and Objectives of the meeting

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First coordination meeting of regional air quality initiatives and programs in asia

First Coordination Meeting of Regional Air Quality Initiatives and Programs in Asia

Cornie Huizenga, CAI-Asia Secretariat

Grand Sheraton

16 June, 2004

Bangkok, Thailand


Overview of presentation

Overview of Presentation

Background and Objectives of the meeting

Review of status quo of Air Quality Management in Asia

Priorities for Air Quality Management in Asia

How to strengthen coordination and cooperation among regional programs and initiatives on AQM in Asia


Part 1

Part 1

Background and Objectives of the meeting


Background

Objectives &

Background

Background

  • CAI-Asia promotes sharing of experiences and building of partnerships.

  • CAI-Asia has informally or formally been cooperating with several of the regional programs and organizations present is, or invited to, the meeting

  • After having established the CAI-Asia, the website (http://www.cleanair.org/caiasia) and other activities the time has come to focus more on active regional networking and (joint) policy development


Objectives

Objectives &

Background

Objectives

  • To share and discuss CAI-Asia’s views on status of AQM in Asia

  • To share and discuss approaches adopted by regional programs and initiatives in AQM related activities

  • To share and discuss regional AQM priorities for Asia

  • To discuss strengthening of Coordination and Cooperation among AQM programs and Initiatives in Asia


Part 2

Part 2

Review of Status of AQM in Asia


Approach in describing air quality management status

AQM Status

Asia

Approach in describing Air Quality Management Status

  • Drivers: trends with respect to factors contributing to increase/decrease in emissions

  • Pressure:trends with respect to emissions from different sources

  • State:trends with respect to concentrations of pollutants in the atmosphere

  • Impact: trends with respect to health, environmental and economic impacts

  • Response:trends with respect to the development of capacity to manage air quality


Urbanization

AQM Status

Asia: drivers

Urbanization

Source: United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects, The 1999 Revision.


Population growth

AQM Status

Asia: drivers

Population growth

1600.0

1400.0

1200.0

East Asia

1000.0

population

Southeast

Asia

800.0

600.0

South Asia

400.0

200.0

0.0

1980

1990

2000

2002

More than One billion extra in 20 years


Motorization

AQM Status

Asia: drivers

600

600

500

500

400

400

300

300

Vehicle Population (millions)

Vehicle Population (millions)

U.S. Current Level

U.S. Current Level

200

200

100

100

0

0

1995

1995

2000

2000

2005

2005

2010

2010

2015

2015

2020

2020

2025

2025

2030

2030

Motorization

Vehicle growth

scenario China

Source: ADB 2002. Policy Guidelines to Reduce Vehicle Emissions

Source: Dongquan He, Energy Foundation 2004


Energy consumption

AQM Status

Asia: drivers

Energy consumption

3000.0

2500.0

2000.0

Total Asia Pacific

China

MTOE

1500.0

India

Japan

1000.0

500.0

-

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2002

Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2003


Co 2 emissions

AQM Status

Asia: Pressure

4000

3500

3000

2500

2000

miilion tons C eq

1500

1000

500

0

    Other Asia

1990

1998

1999

2005

2010

2015

2020

    South Korea

    India

    China

    Australasia

    Japan

CO2 emissions

Asia: Per capita CO2 Emissions

0.4

0.3

Metric Tons of Carbon

0.2

0.1

0.0

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

1950

CO2 emissions

1980 – 2020

Source: http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/emis/tre_fea.htm

Source: IEA, 2002


Technology changes

AQM Status

Asia: Pressure

Technology Changes

Energy switch e.g Coal to natural gas has contributed to lowering SO2 emissions in urban areas in China.

Removal of lead from gasoline has drastically reduced lead being emitted per vehicle

Source: BAQ 2002

Source: Wangwongwatana, BAQ 2002

Although there is strong growth in motorization, the introduction of cleaner engines and fuels has slowed down the overall growth in emissions and there is considerable potential to slow down the increase in emissions from transport even further

Source: CAI-Asia statistics 2004


Local versus trans boundary generated pollution

AQM Status

Asia: Pressure

Local versus trans-boundary generated pollution

Air quality over Bangladesh on October 23, 2001 (left) and December 4, 2001

Part of China’s sulphur emissions

are deposited within China, a substantial amount is deposited in Korea (24%) and Japan (38%)

Source: Alles, Davis 2004 http://fire.biol.wwu.edu/trent/alles/AirPollution.pdf

Source: Draft Results BURGEAP study for China National Environment

Monitoring Center (CNEMC) financed by French FASEP


Air quality levels 2000 2001

AQM Status

Asia: State

Air quality levels 2000-2001

400

350

300

250

Level 0

Pre-problem

200

concentration in µg/m

3

Level 1

Moderate &

Increasing

150

100

Level 2

High &

Stable

50

0

Level 3

Medium &

Decreasing

3

3

2

2

3

2

2

2

2

2

3

2

4

3

2

3

Seoul

Pune

Tokyo

Busan

Manila

Osaka

Jakarta

Kolkata

Bangkok

Mumbai

Colombo

Shanghai

New Delhi

Singapore

Hong Kong

Chongqing

level 4

Low & Stable

SPM Limit = 90 µg/m3 (WHO, 1979)

SO2 Limit = 50 µg/m3 (WHO, 1999)

SPM

SO2

NO2 Limit = 40 µg/m3 (WHO, 1999)

PM10 Limit = 50 µg/m3 (USEPA, 1997)

PM10

NO2

Source: Information collected from national and local government agencies through CAI-Asia network, 2003, detailed sources

available from CAI-Asia Secretariat


Observations on state of air quality

AQM Status

Asia: State

Observations on state of air quality

  • Several cities have recorded improvements in air quality on annual basis, e.g. Bangkok, but these cities continue to surpass short-term standards on a regular basis

  • It is hard to describe State of air quality in Asian cities due to paucity of available data

  • If pollutants are not measured e.g. Ozone or fine particulate they can not be assessed. It does not mean that the problem is not there

  • Different cities and countries use different scales to define air quality, which makes comparison difficult

  • Information presented in previous slide can NOT be used to rank air quality among Asian cities


Health effects and health costs

0.7

0.7

0.6

0.6

0.5

0.5

0.62

0.62

0.4

0.4

0.46

0.46

0.5

0.5

Percent Increase

Percent Increase

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

0

0

US (90 Cities)*

US (90 Cities)*

Eur (21

Eur (21

Asia (6

Asia (6

Studies)*

Studies)*

Studies)

Studies)

AQM Status

Asia: Impact

Health Effects and Health Costs

Exposure Risks

Exposure Risks

Health Effects

Number of Premature Deaths

Risks

Risks

Global

Global

Asian

Asian

Estimate

Estimate

Estimate

Estimate

Unsafe

Unsafe

1,730,000

1,730,000

730,000

730,000

Water

Water

Urban

Urban

799,000

799,000

487,000

487,000

Outdoor Air

Outdoor Air

Indoor Air

Indoor Air

1,619,000

1,619,000

1,025,000

1,025,000

Source: WHO, 2002

Source: Greenbaum and O’Keefe, BAQ 2003

Health Costs

Health Costs

(per year)

(per year)

Manila US$392M

Manila US$392M

Shanghai US$880M

Shanghai US$880M

Bangkok US$424M

Bangkok US$424M

India US$14 to $ 191.6M

India US$14 to $ 191.6M

Jakarta US$ 100 M

Jakarta US$ 100 M

Source: ADB 2002. Policy Guidelines on Reducing Vehicle Emissions


Benchmarking of aqm capacity

Review

Both city profile and questionnaire to be reviewed by air quality experts in the city

Overall review panel (e.g. WHO, World Bank and ADB, etc)

AQM Status

Asia: Response

Cities covered in Benchmarking Study

Bangkok

Beijing

Busan

Colombo

Dhaka

Hanoi

Hong Kong

Ho Chi Minh

Jakarta

Karachi

Kathmandu

Manila

Mumbai

New Delhi

Kolkata

Osaka

Seoul

Shanghai

Surabaya

Singapore

Taipei

Tokyo

Yogyakarta

1. Air quality measurement capacity

2. Data assessment and availability

3. Emissions estimates

4. Management enabling capabilities

Benchmarking of AQM capacity

AQMQuestionnaire

  • AQM Profile

  • 15-20 page document:

  • general information

  • description of pollution sources

  • Air Quality Data

  • Impacts of air pollution

  • Policies, Programs and Projects

  • Conclusions


Air quality measurement capability

AQM Status

Asia: Response

Air quality measurement capability

Draft Draft Draft

Status of AQ

monitoring

in Asia

  • Only in few cases are monitoring stations linked in a network

  • Routine regulatory monitoring generally does not (yet) include ozone and PM 2.5

  • QA/QC programs are not institutionalized in most cases

  • Routine regulatory monitoring generally does not (yet) include ozone and PM 2.5

Source: Benchmarking Study Urban Air Quality Management and Practice in Major and Mega Cities of Asia – Stage 2 (draft)


Data assessment and availability

AQM Status

Asia: Response

Data Assessment and Availability

  • A number of cities have APIs, but not all publish AQ information on a regular basis. API’s in most cases do not include pollutants of concern such as PM10 or Ozone.

  • There is no study on the effectiveness of API as a communication tool

    • Whether people look at it; or

    • Whether people understand it

  • Cities with API do not appear to use API as management tool, e.g. issue air quality alerts

  • Comprehensive overview of air quality in Asia is not available. CAI-Asia is facing difficulties in obtaining information


Emissions estimates

AQM Status

Asia: Response

Draft, Draft, Draft

Emissions estimates

  • Many cities have initiated development of Emission Inventories

  • BUT

  • Level of detail/ disaggregation varies greatly

  • Reliability of activity data on which inventories are based and Emission factors used is questionable for many of the cities

  • Inventories in many of the cases were conducted by outside groups: academe or consulting firms

  • CAUTION

  • in formulating AQM policies based on current Emission Inventories

Source: Benchmarking Study Urban Air Quality Management and Practice in Major and Mega Cities of Asia – Stage 2 (draft)


Aqm management capacity

AQM Status

Asia: Response

Draft, Draft, Draft

AQM management capacity

Stage 5 – Low and decreasing levels of air pollution; routine review and updates in legislation, monitoring, policies and strong focus on air pollution prevention

Tokyo, Singapore, Osaka, Seoul

Stage 4 – Moderate and decreasing levels of air pollution; continuous monitoring, full fledged policies and control measures, emerging focus on air pollution prevention

Bangkok, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Busan

Beijing, Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Taipei

Stage 3 – High but decreasing levels of air pollution; manual and continuous monitoring, comprehensive legislation and AQM Action Plans

Colombo, Dhaka, HCM City,

Hanoi, Jakarta, Kathmandu, Manila, Yogyakarta

Stage 2 – High but stabilizing levels of air pollution; ad-hoc legislation, start of monitoring, tail-pipe/ stack emissions control

Stage 1 – Moderate and increasing levels of air pollution; ad-hoc monitoring and ad-hoc control measures

Karachi, Surabaya

Stage 0 – Pre-problem stage; no or very basic AQM

Classification according to stages is based on AQ capability questionnaire, AQ levels and City profile.

Source: Benchmarking Study Urban Air Quality Management and Practice in Major and Mega Cities of Asia – Stage 2 (draft)


Part 3

Part 3

Priorities for AQM in Asia


Potential priority areas

Priorities for AQM in Asia

Potential Priority Areas

  • Comprehensive Approach to air quality management

  • Impact assessment of air pollution

  • Roll-out air quality management to more cities

  • (New) pollutants of concern: PM, Ozone, VOCs and heavy metals

  • Increased emphasis on prevention of pollution rather than managing the tail-pipe and the stack-pipe

  • Integrate local air quality management with trans-boundary air quality management

  • Integrate local air quality management with GHG abatement

  • Funding for AQM


Comprehensive approach to aqm

Priorities for AQM in Asia

Comprehensive approach to AQM

1. Air quality measurement

  • Benchmarking study: comprehensive approach to AQM, over time, gives the best results

  • QA/QC THE priority in AQ monitoring

  • Continuous monitoring

  • Access to information (detailed AQ data) to mobilize support and funding for AQM

  • Emissions inventories the weakest link in AQM in Asia

  • Management strategies need to address mobile, stationary and area sources

  • More institutional capacity/budget to implement AQM policies

2. Data assessment/

availability

3. Emissions estimates

4.Management strategies


Impact assessment of air pollution in asia

Priorities for AQM in Asia

Impact assessment of Air Pollution in Asia

  • PAPA project fills important gap, but:

  • Need for increased capacity to assess health impacts in Asia: exposure analysis, vulnerability of special groups (poor, children, elderly)

  • Capacity to be more evenly spread across Asia

  • Indigenize the capacity to carry out health impact research further

  • More detailed health and air pollution data

  • Make a start with more substantial work on impact assessment of air pollution on environment (climate and crop growth rates, buildings)

  • Improve quality of economic impact analysis of air pollution and do them on a routine basis


Roll out of aqm to more cities

Priorities for AQM in Asia

Roll-out of AQM to more cities

  • Asia has about 5000 cities with more than 100.000 inhabitants. In many of the countries in Asia AQM is limited to 5-10 cities.

  • National governments will need to focus more on legislation, capacity building and oversight and delegate responsibility for actual implementation of AQM to lower administrative levels

  • Capacity building program required for secondary cities

  • Do secondary cities need modified version of comprehensive AQM systems ?


New pollutants of concern pm ozone vocs and heavy metals

Priorities for AQM in Asia

(new) pollutants of concern PM, Ozone, VOCs and heavy metals

  • Fine PM (PM10, , PM 2.5) and ultra-fine particulate major health risk. WHO indicates no safe levels. Should Asian countries have PM standards?

  • PM monitoring to be improved and more targeted PM reduction strategies to be improved

  • Relative importance of PM in API’s to be reconsidered

  • Increase in motorization in Asia sharpens the need to have standards for Ozone, monitor it and control it.

  • Few countries in Asia monitor VOCs and heavy metals


Prevention of pollution and tail stack pipe solutions

Priorities for AQM in Asia

Prevention of pollution and tail-stack pipe solutions

Mobile Sources of Pollution

  • Increase in drivers of air pollution in Asia makes it unlikely that tail and stack-pipe control can manage air pollution

  • Fuel switching and larger share of renewable energy sources

  • Relocation of pollution from population sources

  • Public transport

  • Better Land-use planning

Change Modal Split through

Land-use Planning,

Transport Planning and

Travel Demand Management

Emissions

Standards

(technology)

  • Make optimal use of cleaner technology in stationary and mobile sources of pollution

  • Cleaner fuels and engines

  • Better maintenance

Inspection &

Maintenance

Clean Fuels


Integration of local aqm with trans boundary aqm

Priorities for AQM in Asia

Integration of local AQM with trans-boundary AQM

  • AQM strategies usually do not take account of the contribution made by pollution originating from outside.

  • Local AQ monitoring systems and trans-boundary AQ monitoring systems to be integrated

  • Emission inventories and source apportionment studies to reflect what part of pollution is from local origin and what is “imported”

  • Where substantive “imports” occur joint strategies to be developed with areas where pollution originates (Example of the Pearl Delta)

  • Overall trans-boundary air pollution underscores the need for harmonized approaches to AQM and need for regional cooperation


Integration of local aqm with ghg abatement

Priorities for AQM in Asia

Integration of local AQM with GHG abatement

  • Air pollution and Greenhouse gasses share many “drivers” population growth, urbanization, energy use, motorization. It makes sense therefore to develop joint strategies.

  • Co-benefits of local air pollution control and GHG abatement till now not well documented. Knowledge management to be improved.

  • Air pollution community and GHG community need to improve communication. Revise organizational structures.

  • More joint pilot projects.


Funding

Priorities for AQM in Asia

Funding

Justification for additional funding

Health Costs (per year)

  • Expansion of AQ management (quantity and quality) will require substantive funding.

  • Air Quality management is relatively under funded compared to water quality management and other urban services

  • Funding of AQM needs to be made less dependent on donor funding

  • Alternative funding sources such as GEF to be explored

  • Polluters (stationary – mobile) need to increase funding to prevent/control pollution

  • Awareness raising that money spent on AQM is money well spent

  • Manila US$392M

  • Shanghai US$880M

  • Bangkok US$424M

  • India US$14 to $ 191.6M

  • Jakarta US$ 100 M

Air pollution prevention in mobile sectorthrough improved maintenance has very good returns because of reduced fuel consumption and reduced breakdowns

Air pollution prevention in stationary sectorcleaner production, reduced fuel consumption and reduced breakdowns


Part 4

Part 4

How to strengthen Coordination and Cooperation among AQM programs and Initiatives in Asia


Initiatives and organizations with aqm portfolio

AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia

Initiatives and organizations with AQM portfolio

Status of AQ

monitoring

in Asia

Source: Draft Results CAI-Asia Survey AQM initiatives and Programs, 2004


Aqm projects by country

AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia

Bangladesh

Regional

2%

21%

India

13%

Viet Nam

Indonesia

4%

6%

Korea, Republic

Thailand

1%

3%

Sri Lanka

Mongolia

1%

3%

Singapore

Malaysia

1%

3%

Myanmar

1%

Nepal

1%

Pakistan

China, PR

Philippines

1%

32%

7%

- AQM Projects by country -


Aqm projects by type

AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia

AQM Projects by type

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Ambient Air Monitoring

Mobile Sources

Stationary Sources

GHG Abatement

Indoor Air Pollution

Transboundary Air Pollution

Note: One Project can have multiple objectives


Breakdown mobile source projects by sub objective

AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia

Breakdown Mobile Source Projects by sub-objective

Note: One Project can have multiple sub-objectives


Aqm projects by component

AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia

AQM Projects by Component

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

Policy/ Strategies Development

Data Gathering and Analysis

Awareness Raising

Capacity Building

Equipment Support

Note: One Project can have multiple components


Collective knowledge base

AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia

Collective Knowledge base

  • No established data-base of programs and projects – duplication of efforts

  • Programs and Projects have produced substantive body of knowledge yet results are not well documented and not shared beyond groups directly involved in project implementation

  • No joint agenda which documents type of programs and projects that will be required


Integration external funded projects with regular aqm efforts

AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia

Integration external funded projects with regular AQM efforts

  • Results from special projects until now are not fully utilized in the formulation of AQ management policies and practices

  • Methodology and technology of special AQ data projects is often more advanced than regular AQ monitoring programs

  • Transfer of skills from special projects to regulatory agencies is limited


Cai asia

AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia

-CAI-Asia-

  • The Clean Air Initiative promotes and demonstrates innovative ways to improve the air quality of Asian Cities through sharing experiences and building partnership

    • Sharing knowledge and experiences on air quality management

    • Capacity building

    • Improving policy and regulatory frameworks at the regional level

    • Assisting cities in formulating and implementing integrated air quality management systems

    • Piloting projects to encourage innovation

“Create an Air Quality Management Community in Asia”


Cai asia membership

AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia

CAI-Asia Membership

CITIES

Bangkok,Thailand

Chiang Mai,Thailand

Chengdu,PRC

Chittagong,Bangladesh

Chongqing,PRC

Colombo,Sri Lanka

Dhaka, Bangladesh

Guangzhou,PRC

Haiphong, Viet Nam

Hangzhou,PRC

Hanoi,Viet Nam

Harbin,PRC

Ho Chi Minh City,Viet Nam

Hong Kong, SAR, China

Hyderabad, India

Islamabad,Pakistan

Kathmandu,Nepal

Lahore, Pakistan

Makati,Philippines

Metro Manila, Philippines

Mumbai, India

Naga,Philippines

Phnom Penh,Cambodia

Pune, India

Singapore, (NEA)

Surabaya,Indonesia

Tianjin,PRC

Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Yogyakarta,Indonesia

NGAs

Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board, India

Australia Department of Environment and Heritage

Balochistan EPA, Pakistan

Central Pollution Control Board, India

Department of Environment, Bangladesh

Department of Forests, Ecology and Env’t, Karnataka State, India

Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Philippines

Department of Energy, Philippines

Department of Transportation and Communications, Philippines

Dhaka Transport Coordination Board, Bangladesh

Environmental Protection Agency Karachi, Pakistan

Ministry of Environment, Cambodia

Ministry of Environment, Indonesia

Ministry of Public Works and Transport, Cambodia

Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, India

Pollution Control Department, Thailand

State Environmental Protection Administration (PRC focal point)

Viet Nam Register, Viet Nam

  • 50 NGOs and Academic Institutions in the Region

DEVELOPMENT AGENCIES

Asian Development Bank

Australian Department for Environment and Heritage

German Agency for Technical

Cooperation

The William and Flora Hewlett

Foundation

United States-Asia

Environmental Partnership

Sida

World Bank

FULL PRIVATE SECTOR Member

Ford Motor Shell

Company

ASSOCIATE PRIVATE SECTORMember

AVL Corning ETI

ACFA DEKRA ESP

Cerulean EMITEC IPIECA

MAHA SGS


What does cai asia bring to the table

AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia

What does CAI-Asia bring to the table ?

Knowledge

Management

  • cleanairnet.org/caiasia

  • CAI-Asia Listserv

  • Benchmarking Study

  • AQM Best Practices

Capacity

Building

  • CATNet Asia

  • Distance learning course

  • Special Training Courses

Regional

Policy and

Standards

  • Strategic Framework for AQM in Asia

  • CAI-Asia Oil Industry Dialogue

  • Priority Agenda for AQM in Asia

Integrated

Air Quality

Strategies

  • Country and City based AQM strategies

  • Country and city based local networks

Pilot

Projects

  • PAPA Project

  • Poverty and Air Pollution

  • Diesel

  • Emission Factor Development

  • PSUTA (sustainable transport)

  • Fuel additives

Workshops

  • BAQ 2002

  • BAQ 2003

  • BAQ 2004

  • Sustainable Transport, Vietnam

  • Sustainable Urban Dev., Shanghai

  • Heating, Ulaanbaatar

  • Clean Air Congress, London


Who has the capacity to coordinate

AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia

Who has the capacity to coordinate ?

  • Generally the will to coordinate and cooperate is larger than the capacity to actually do so

  • Limited capacity means difficulties in making data available, no travel funds to attend coordination meetings, limited possibility to prepare for and follow-up to coordination meetings

  • Few programs, with dedicated secretariats have actual capacity to engage in coordination, eg. CAI-Asia (8 persons), IGES, …

  • Coordination mandate of these programs is partly self appointed. Natural mandate for coordination with UNEP? But, what is their capacity?


What are we coordinating

AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia

What are we coordinating?

  • globally: (awareness raising on AQM, broad policy approaches, information exchange, capacity building)

  • Regionally: (same as globally but at Asia specific level, more emphasis on harmonization of policies and standards)

  • Nationally: (policy and standards setting, institutional structures, capacity building and AQM implementation coordination and oversight)

  • City: ( implementation coordination within policies and structures set at the national level).

Policies &

Standards

AwarenessRaising and Knowledge management

Implementation

Coordination


Cai asia 2004 objective for global coordination

AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia

www.cleanairnet.org

East Europe

Central Asia

Global

Asia

Sub Sahara Africa

Latin America.

BAQ 2003

Eng

Fr

Eng

Port

Esp

Info-pool

-CAI-Asia 2004 objective for global coordination-

  • Strengthen general knowledge base on AQM through http://www.cleanairnet.org

Hosted

under World Bank contract

(tech. Support Chile)

Managed by ADB and WB

(tech. Support Chile)

  • Discuss possibilities for coordinated approaches to capacity building with Latin America, Africa and Asia based on CATNet-Asia model and Distance learning course

  • Discuss desirability and feasibility of further organizational cooperation and integration of CAI-Asia, CAI-LAC (Latin America) and CAI-SSA (Sub-Sahara Africa)


Cai asia 2004 objective for regional coordination

AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia

-CAI-Asia 2004 objective for regional coordination-

Four main products:

  • Synthesis of Air pollution health impact studies- PAPA project – describes why AQM is needed in Asia

  • Strategic Framework for Air Quality management (APMA/CAI-Asia) – outlines a broad based, high level approach to AQM in Asia

  • Benchmarking of Air Quality Management capability (APMA/CAI-Asia) – assesses how far Asian cities are in the implementation of SF for AQM in Asia

  • Priority Agenda for AQM in Asia (CAI-Asia/????) – in the further strengthening of AQM capacity in Asia, what should be the focus of AQM


Cai asia 2004 objective for national coordination

AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia

-CAI-Asia 2004 objective for national coordination-

  • Establishment of national networks in main countries of Asia

  • Encourage discussion on national policies and standards on AQM

  • Promote capacity building programs

China local

Network

(under establishment)

Lead: ADB- EF

India local

Network

(under establishment)

Lead: ADB

Bangladesh local

Network

(under establishment)

Lead: ADB + WB

Nepal local

Network

(under establishment)

Lead: ADB

Sri-Lanka local

Network

(AIRMAC)

Lead: USAID/US-AEP

Vietnam

Network

Lead: USAID/US-AEP


Cai asia 2004 objective for city coordination

AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia

-CAI-Asia 2004 objective for city coordination-

  • Establishment of city networks where relevant

  • Encourage discussion on implementation cooperation

  • Promote capacity building programs

Jakarta

Network

(Mitra Emisi Bersih)

Lead: USAID/US-AEP

Manila local

Network

(Partnership for Clean Air)

Lead: ADB

Pune local

Network

Lead: USAID/US-AEP

Karachi local network

(Under establishment)

Lead: IUCN


How do we continue with coordination and cooperation

AQM Coordination and Cooperation in Asia

How do we continue with coordination and cooperation?

  • No predefined concept of “coordination” and “cooperation”

  • Each “coordinator” will define concept of “coordination” and “cooperation”

  • Avoid over-dependence on one organization for coordination and cooperation

  • There can and should be several coordinators for global, regional, national and local level, and thematic topics (e.g. PAPA program)

  • Make certain that the coordinators talk to each other and that there are communication structures (websites, listservers, workshops, dedicated meetings)

The most successful coordination and cooperation is organic!


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